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Table 2 Baseline characteristics and results of glucometer testing conducted on TB patients through community-based TB-DM screening

From: Operationalization of bi-directional screening for tuberculosis and diabetes in private sector healthcare clinics in Karachi, Pakistan

  Persons with TB Tested for DM* Pre-Diabetes* Newly Diagnosed DM cases p-value†
n % n % n %  
Total 266 100 25 100 8 100  
Sex
 Male 108 40.6 13 48.0 4 50.0 0.99
 Female 158 59.4 12 48.0 4 50.0  
Age (years)
  < 20 60 22.6 4 16.0 0 0.0 < 0.01
 20–29 93 35.0 5 20.0 0 0.0  
 30–39 43 16.2 2 8.0 1 12.5  
 40 and above 67 25.2 14 56.0 7 87.5  
Family History of DM*
 Yes 32 12.0 1 4.0 3 37.5 0.97
 No 234 88.0 24 96.0 5 62.5  
Current or Previous Smoking History
 Yes 21 7.9 7 28.0 2 25.0 < 0.01
 No 245 92.1 18 72.0 6 75.0  
Ethnicity
 Sindhi 14 5.3 2 8.0 2 25.0 0.11
 Balochi 2 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0  
 Punjabi 8 3.0 1 4.0 0 0.0  
 Pathan 118 44.4 5 20.0 3 37.5  
 Muhajir 91 34.2 12 48.0 1 12.5  
 Other 33 12.4 3 12.0 1 12.5  
MTB Burden
 Negative (clinically diagnosed) 28 10.5 3 12.0 2 25.0 0.85
 Very low-low 90 33.8 9 34.0 2 25.0  
 Medium 90 33.8 9 36.0 3 37.5  
 High 58 21.8 4 16.0 1 12.5  
Type of TB
 New 229 86.1 22 88.0 7 87.5 0.75
 Retreatment 37 13.9 3 12.0 1 12.5  
  1. *The cut-offs for RBS testing were taken from the International Diabetes federation
  2. † The p-value denotes the level of significance found when testing differences in sociodemographic characteristics between individuals identified as new DM cases and those identified as pre-DM, among all TB patients who had a glucometer blood sugar test