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Table 3 Characteristics of phase 2 studies, summarising first author/year, country, prison, disease, study design, method of data collection, aims of research, relevance, and quality assessment score (acceptable: b, good: c, excellent: d

From: Understanding how, why, for whom, and under what circumstances opt-out blood-borne virus testing programmes work to increase test engagement and uptake within prison: a rapid-realist review

First author, year Country Prison Disease Study design Data collection Aims Dimensions of relevance Strength of relevance Quality score
Kavasery, 2009 [43] U.S. Urban men’s jail – New Haven Connecticut HIV Prospective controlled trial Quantitative data capture Determine the optimal timing of opt-out HIV testing for newly incarcerated jail detainees. Red
Orange
Green
9 d
Beckwith, 2011 [41] U.S. Rhode Island Jail HIV Mixed-methods: sequential explanatory Routine data and interviews/FGD Introduce rapid opt-out HIV testing to Rhode Island Jail. Red
Orange
Green
8 d
Public Health England, 2015 [5] U.K. Mixture of phase 1 “pathfinder” prisons HIV, HCV, and HBV Project evaluation Questionnaire Evaluation of opt-out testing for blood borne viruses, implemented throughout pilot English prisons. Red
Orange
4 N/A
Elkington, 2016 [59] U.S. Mixed HIV Literature review Systematic search To review the effectiveness of HIV testing and linkage programmes and review barriers and facilitators to these programmes in the correctional setting. Red
Orange
4 N/A
Rosen, 2016 [52] U.S. North Carolina HIV Before and after study Routine data Assess the impact of routine opt-out testing in terms of case detection. Red 5 d
Rice, 2011 [44] U.S. Wayne County Jail HIV Thesis Multiple Design, implement, and evaluate a jail-based HIV testing program. Red
Orange
Green
10 N/A
Spaulding, 2015 [38] U.S. Fulton County Jail HIV Mixed-methods: sequential explanatory Routine data and questionnaire To establish a rapid opt-out HIV testing program, led by the jail-based nursing team. Red
Orange
Green
6 c
Lucas, 2016 [39] U.S. Eight prison reception centres (California) HIV Quantitative descriptive evaluation Routine data Conduct an evaluation of routine HIV services, implemented throughout California. Red 4 c
Rosen, 2007 [63] U.S. 8 intake prisons in North Carolina HIV Thesis Routine data Evaluation of a large southern state opt-out HIV testing programme. Red
Orange
Green
5 N/A
Schoenbachler, 2016 [55] U.S. Durham County Jail, Florence Detention, Orangeburg Jail, Marion Jail and Darlington Jail HCV Quantitative descriptive evaluation Routine data Evaluate an HCV testing and linkage-to-care post release program among detainees of small-to-medium sized jails. Red
Orange
5 b
Grinstead, 2003 [64] U.S. Mixed HIV, HCV, HBV, and other sexually transmitted infections Qualitative exploration Interviews Explore providers’ experiences regarding HIV, hepatitis, and other sexually transmitted infection testing services within prison. Red
Orange
7 c
Centres for Disease Control, 2011 [49] U.S. Washington State Department of Corrections (12 male facilities) HIV Quantitative descriptive evaluation Routine data To assess the rate of testing under three different testing strategies: on-request, routine opt-in, and routine opt-out. Red
Orange
Green
5 c
Centres for Disease Control, 2009 [11] U.S. N/A HIV Opt-out testing programme guidance N/A To guide the implementation of opt-out HIV testing in the correctional setting by highlighting suggested common components and tenants of such a testing programme. Red
Orange
6 N/A
Peter, 2009 [45] U.S. Orleans Parish Prison, Jefferson Parish Correctional Centre HIV Thesis Routine data Look at the effectiveness of opt-out and opt-in approaches to HIV testing in jail populations. Red
Orange
7 N/A
Muessig, 2016 [57] U.S. North Carolina State Prison System HIV Qualitative Interviews – 76 incarcerated men and women Exploring issues of HIV stigma within an opt-out testing programme. Red
Orange
Green
10 c
Walker, 2005 [54] U.S. N/A HIV Letter(s) N/A Discusses the ethical concerns surrounding routine opt-out HIV testing within the prison setting. Red 4 N/A
Beckwith, 2010 [67] U.S. N/A HIV Literature review Search Provide a review of the current state of delivering HIV testing, prevention, treatment and transition services to incarcerated populations. Red
Orange
4 N/A
Rosen, 2015 [8] U.S. North Carolina State Prison System HIV Quantitative cross-sectional survey Quantitative survey and routine data To explore prisoners understanding of the voluntary nature of routine opt-out testing. Red
Orange
8 c
Grodensky, 2016 [48] U.S. North Carolina Prison System HIV Quantitative cross-sectional survey Quantitative survey and routine data Estimate the proportion unaware of being tested and the proportion of people tested who did not want a test. Red
Orange
Green
9 c
Cole, 2014 [46] U.S. Cook County Jail Chlamydia trachomatis & Neisseria gonorrhoeae Retrospective analysis Routine data Evaluate the impact of opt-out testing on rates of testing and diagnosis of infection among incarcerated women, assess the proportion of infections successfully treated, and evaluate factors associated with receipt of treatment. Red
Orange
Green
8 c
Public Health England, 2016 [70] U.K. Pentonville Prison HIV, HBV, and HCV Pilot evaluation Routine data Report results from provisional data analysis for the pilot blood-borne virus care pathway trialled within Pentonville prison. Red
Orange
5 N/A
Jack, 2016 [51] U.K. East Midlands Category B male prison HCV Qualitative phenomenology Interviews (prison officers) To explore the views of prison officers about people in prison being tested and treated for HCV. Red
Orange
6 d
Beckwith, 2012 [53] U.S. Baltimore Department of Corrections, Philadelphia Prison System, District of Columbia Department of Corrections HIV Quantitative descriptive evaluation Routine data To assess the feasibility of implementing large scale rapid and routine opt-out testing programmes for HIV in large urban jails. Red
Orange
Green
6 d
Centres for Disease Control, 2013 [37] U.S. Fulton County Jail HIV Quantitative descriptive evaluation Routine Data Evaluate a routine opt-out testing programme in a large county jail. Red
Orange
Green
5 c
Centre for Disease Control, 2010 [77] U.S. Rhode Island Jail HIV Quantitative descriptive evaluation Routine Data Review of Rhode Island Jail’s testing records. Red
Orange
4 c
Kavasery, 2009 [42] U.S. York Correctional Institution, Connecticut HIV Prospective controlled trial Quantitative data capture Evaluate the optimal time to conduct routine opt-out HIV testing of newly incarcerated jail inmates in a manner that maximises the number of individuals capable of consenting and wiling to be tested. Red
Orange
Green
9 d
Newlan, 2016 [40] Indonesia Banceuy Prison HIV, HBV, and HCV Natural experiment Routine data To compare the efficacy of two different testing strategies (routine or targeted). Red
Orange
Green
5 b
Rumble, 2015 [13] Mixed Mixed HIV, HBV, and HCV Systematic review Systematic literature search Describe components of routine HIV, HBV, and HCV testing policies in prisons and quantify testing acceptance, coverage, result notification, and diagnosis. Red
Orange
Green
7 d
Gagnon, 2012 [61] N/A N/A HIV Literature review Search Provide a sociological critique of mandatory testing in light of other testing approaches, including opt-out. Red
Orange
7 N/A