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Table 4 Comparison of Factor Scores of Tool for Measuring Cultural Differences in Healthcare Perceived by Foreign Patients

From: Perceived cultural differences in healthcare for foreign patients visiting South Korea: tool development and measurement

Factor number (number of items, maximum score) Englisha
(n = 23)
Chineseb
(n = 40)
Arabicc
(n = 73)
Russiand
(n = 60)
Mongoliane
(n = 60)
Total
(n = 256)
F (p) Duncan’s test
M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD
1 (n = 13, 52) 17.48 ± 12.03 21.35 ± 9.65 14.81 ± 13.08 32.87 ± 13.53 23.18 ± 12.91 22.27 ± 14.17 18.00 (<.001) c, a < a, b < b, e < d
2 (n = 7, 28) 12.30 ± 9.10 11.84 ± 4.96 7.35 ± 6.49 15.25 ± 8.25 10.47 ± 6.16 11.04 ± 7.39 10.08 (<.001) c, e < e, b, a < b, a, d
3 (n = 6, 24) 7.27 ± 5.58 9.90 ± 4.27 5.59 ± 6.30 13.47 ± 7.44 8.31 ± 6.32 8.91 ± 6.90 13.74 (<.001) c, a, e < a, e, b < d
4 (n = 5, 20) 6.17 ± 4.04 8.17 ± 3.89 6.89 ± 5.14 10.60 ± 5.54 7.36 ± 4.86 8.01 ± 5.11 6.20 (<.001) a, b, c, e < d
5 (n = 4, 16) 5.23 ± 4.04 5.77 ± 3.01 3.40 ± 4.05 8.61 ± 5.11 5.25 ± 4.17 5.59 ± 4.58 11.64 (<.001) c, a, e < a, e, b < d
6 (n = 3, 12) 2.20 ± 2.49 5.06 ± 2.55 3.23 ± 3.29 5.79 ± 3.72 3.45 ± 3.35 4.15 ± 3.44 6.28 (<.001) a, c, e < c, e, b < b, d
7 (n = 3, 12) 2.33 ± 1.91 4.87 ± 2.21 3.22 ± 3.11 5.07 ± 3.72 2.89 ± 2.57 3.77 ± 3.09 7.23 (<.001) a, e, c < b, d
Total (n = 41, 164) 52.91 ± 27.67 64.80 ± 25.00 43.23 ± 33.03 87.50 ± 40.72 55.12 ± 31.78 59.73 ± 37.17 16.96 (<.001) a, c, e < e, b < d
  1. Note. M mean, SD standard deviation. Duncan’s post-hoc analysis was used for unequal group variances