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Table 3 Comparison of High-Score Items for Perceived Cultural Differences in Healthcare Tool of Foreign Patients

From: Perceived cultural differences in healthcare for foreign patients visiting South Korea: tool development and measurement

Rank Total (n = 256) Russian (n = 60) Chinese (n = 40)
Items M ± SD Items M ± SD Items M ± SD
1 Cost of medical care 2.61 ± 1.43 Cost of medical care 3.17 ± 1.27 Cost of medical care 2.78 ± 1.18
2 Food aroma 1.98 ± 1.28 Skill and competency of medical staff 2.88 ± 1.19 The globalization of healthcare service 2.16 ± 1.15
3 The globalization of healthcare service 1.93 ± 1.44 The globalization of healthcare service 2.86 ± 1.29 Focus of Western medicine (not traditional) in healthcare service 1.92 ± 1.08
4 Skill and competency of medical staff 1.91 ± 1.46 Friendliness of medical staff 2.72 ± 1.32 Spoken communication with medical staff 1.88 ± .90
5 Food taste 1.87 ± 1.24 Sanitary facilities in the hospital (e.g., toilet, baths, shower room) 2.63 ± 1.35 The religious facilities in the hospital (e.g., church, prayer room) 1.88 ± 1.20
6 Spoken communication with medical staff 1.80 ± 1.27 Caring attitude of medical staff 2.63 ± 1.23 Food appearance 1.86 ± .86
7 Convenient facilities in the hospital (e.g., bank, convenience store, café) 1.79 ± 1.34 Convenient facilities in the hospital (e.g., bank, convenience store, café) 2.54 ± 1.33 Food temperature 1.86 ± .76
8 The religious ceremonies offered at the hospital (e.g., mass, prayer) 1.79 ± 1.35 Common area in the hospital (e.g., kitchen, waiting room) 2.53 ± 1.54 The religious ceremonies offered at the hospital (e.g., mass, prayer) 1.84 ± .86
9 Understandability of information given by medical staff 1.79 ± 1.34 Protecting privacy during medical service 2.53 ± 1.34 Food taste 1.83 ± .81
10 Waiting time for consultation 1.78 ± 1.30 Understandability of information given by medical staff 2.53 ± 1.25 Food aroma 1.83 ± .77
Rank Mongolian (n = 60) English (n = 23) Arabic (n = 73)
Items M ± SD Items M ± SD Items M ± SD
1 Cost of medical care 2.95 ± 1.20 Cost of medical care 2.73 ± 1.51 Medical terms used by medical staff (e.g., brand name of medication) 1.68 ± 1.26
2 Food aroma 2.25 ± 1.27 Food temperature 2.13 ± 1.80 The religious ceremonies offered at the hospital (e.g., mass, prayer) 1.63 ± 1.52
3 Skill and competency of medical staff 2.14 ± 1.42 Food aroma 2.11 ± 1.69 Cost of medical care 1.58 ± 1.43
4 Food taste 2.00 ± 1.29 Food taste 2.00 ± 1.58 The religious facilities in the hospital (e.g., church, prayer room) 1.53 ± 1.32
5 Friendliness of medical staff 1.98 ± 1.32 The attitude of medical staff toward my food preferences 2.00 ± 1.33 Gender difference between patient and medical staff 1.48 ± 1.36
6 Food service 1.98 ± 1.22 Convenient facilities in the hospital (e.g., bank, convenience store, café) 1.95 ± 1.23 Food aroma 1.47 ± 1.23
7 Convenient facilities in the hospital (e.g., bank, convenience store, café) 1.88 ± 1.25 Sharing hospital room with other patients 1.93 ± 1.59 Waiting time for consultation 1.46 ± 1.41
8 Understandability of information given by medical staff 1.85 ± 1.31 Food service 1.90 ± 1.52 Food taste 1.46 ± 1.26
9 Waiting time for consultation 1.82 ± 1.25 The number of nurses caring for me 1.75 ± 1.57 Spoken communication with medical staff 1.43 ± 1.26
10 The globalization of healthcare service 1.80 ± 1.42 Privacy in hospital room 1.73 ± 1.53 Skill and competency of medical staff 1.38 ± 1.53
  1. Note. M mean, SD standard deviation