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Table 2 Factor Loadings of the 41 Items (N = 256)

From: Perceived cultural differences in healthcare for foreign patients visiting South Korea: tool development and measurement

Items Factor number
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
6. Empathy shown by medical staff .83       
21. Convenient facilities in the hospital (e.g., bank, convenience store, café) .76       
22. Sanitary facilities in the hospital (e.g., toilets, baths, showers) .74       
23. Health and illness perception .73       
24. Attitude of medical staff toward my illness .72       
27. Informing the patient about the diagnosis or prognosis .70       
29. Caring time spent by medical staff .69       
30. Caring attitude of medical staff .69       
31. Understandability of information given by medical staff .58       
32. Friendliness of medical staff .53       
33. Skill and competency of medical staff .52       
34. Waiting time for consultation .50       
41. Cost of medical care .45       
10. Food temperature   .93      
11. Food appearance   .92      
12. Food taste   .92      
13. Food aroma   .88      
14. Food service   .84      
15. Attitude of medical staff toward my food preferences   .79      
16. General awareness of food taboos predicated by culture/religion   .68      
35. System of referral from a primary-care clinic to a tertiary hospital    .70     
36. Protecting privacy while providing healthcare service    .69     
37. Involvement of family members in caring for patient    .68     
38. Hand hygiene of medical staff (e.g., not wearing medical gloves when providing medical services)    .68     
39. Number of nurses caring for me    .65     
40. Globalization of healthcare service    .64     
1. Spoken communication with medical staff     .79    
2. Medical terms used by medical staff (e.g., brand names of medications)     .74    
3. Gestures of medical staff     .73    
4. Physical contact by medical staff     .71    
5. Eye contact of medical staff     .68    
17. Sharing the hospital room with other patients      .79   
18. Privacy in the hospital room      .75   
19. Layout of the hospital room      .71   
20. Common areas in the hospital (e.g., kitchen, waiting room)      .62   
7. Religious facilities in the hospital (e.g., church, prayer room)       .85  
8. Religious ceremonies offered at the hospital (e.g., mass, prayers)       .83  
9. Attitude of medical staff toward my religion       .70  
25. Principal decision-maker for healthcare in the family        .72
26. Focus on Western (not traditional) medicine in healthcare service        .55
28. Gender difference between patient and medical staff        .51
Eigenvalues 7.76 6.89 4.29 3.99 3.04 2.54 1.71
 % of variance 18.9 16.8 10.5 9.7 7.4 6.2 4.2
 Cumulative variance (%) 18.9 35.7 46.2 55.9 63.3 69.5 73.7
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy 0.93
Bartlett’s test of sphericity Approx. χ2 9879.96
df 820
p <.001