Skip to main content

Table 2 Open coding results

From: Experiences and responses of second victims of patient safety incidents in Korea: a qualitative study

Category Sub-category Main concept
1. The reactions of the first victim and surrounding people after the incident 1–1 Caregiver’s response after an incident 1–1-1 Understanding and accepting type
1–1-2 Non-responsive type
1–1-3 Emotional-reaction type
1–1-4 Behavior-expressing type
1–2 Fellow healthcare professionals’ responses after an incident 1–2-1 Consoling and sympathetic type
1–2-2 Blaming and reprimanding type
1–2-3 Non-responsive and impassive type
1–2-4 Scapegoat type
2. Influence of factors aside from the incident 2–1 Influence of work-related factors  
2–2 Influence of healthcare professionals’ characteristics  
3. The initial complex responses of the participants to the incident 3–1 Emotional response to the incident 3–1-1 Emotional response to patients and caregivers due to the incident
3–1-2 Self-focused emotional response due to the incident
3–1-3 Emotional response to fellow healthcare professionals and institutions
3–2 Behavioral responses to the incident 3–2-1 Behavioral responses to patients and caregivers due to the incident
3–2-2 Self-focused behavioral responses as a result of the incident
3–2-3 Behavioral responses to fellow healthcare professionals and institutions
4. Open discussion of the incident 4–1 Atmosphere that encourages the disclosure of incidents 4–1-1 Atmosphere of addressing the incident openly
4–1-2 Atmosphere of not addressing the incident openly
4–2 The disclosing of an incident depends on the degree of severity involved 4–2-1 Significant severity
4–2-2 Mediocre severity
4–2-3 Difficult to disclose incidents regardless of severity
4–3 Disclosure is based on patients’ awareness of incidents 4–3-1 Disclosing incidents when patients became aware of the incidents
4–3-2 Avoiding disclosure of incidents when patients do not notice the incidents
5. The culture in medical institutions regarding early-stage incident response 5–1 Positive culture  
5–2 Negative culture  
6. The coping responses of the participants after incidents 6–1. Work-level coping response to prevent recurrence of incidents 6–1-1 Proactive coping response
6–1-2 Passive coping response
6–2. Personal efforts to resolve psychological difficulties 6–2-1 Endeavors to overcome the incident independently
6–2-2 Endeavors to overcome the incident with the help of others
7. Living with the incident 7–1. Trauma that is less severe but still present 7–1-1 Improved
7–1-2 Engraved in memory
7–1-3 Affects work
7–2. Assistance in accepting the trauma 7–2-1 Emotional assistance provided to healthcare professionals
7–2-2 Administrative assistance provided to healthcare professionals