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Table 2 Standard distributions for the low birth weight risk assessment scale items (n = 916)

From: A low-birth-weight risk assessment scale: development and validation through a questionnaire-based survey

Items Response rate
n = 916%
Strongly Disagree
n (%)
Slightly Disagree
n (%)
Slightly Agree
n (%)
Strongly Agree
n (%)
Mean ± SD
(1) I had severe morning sickness 99.9 149 (16.3) 251 (27.4) 298 (32.5) 217 (23.7) 2.6 ± 1.0
(2) At one point, I believed that severe morning sickness must be hereditary 99.2 379 (41.4) 357 (39.0) 119 (13.0) 54 (5.9) 1.8 ± 0.9
(3) I experienced unpleasant symptoms such as headaches 100.0 263 (28.7) 291 (31.8) 249 (27.2) 113 (12.3) 2.2 ± 1.0
(4) During pregnancy checkups, I was given advice on my health statusa 99.8 294 (32.1) 272 (29.7) 243 (26.5) 105 (11.5) 2.2 ± 1.0
(5) I consumed alcohola 100.0 813 (90.7) 56 (6.1) 20 (2.2) 9 (1.0) 1.1 ± 0.5
(6) I thought about the effects of alcohol consumption on the fetus 99.3 203 (22.2) 45 (4.9) 118 (12.9) 544 (59.4) 3.1 ± 1.2
(7) I thought about the effects of smoking on the fetus 99.8 143 (15.6) 42 (4.6) 95 (10.4) 634 (69.2) 3.3 ± 1.1
(8) I was always concerned about weight gain 100.0 66 (7.2) 186 (20.3) 311 (34.0) 353 (38.5) 3.0 ± 0.9
(9) During pregnancy checkups, I was often given advice about my weight gain by medical staff 100.0 284 (31.0) 273 (29.8) 234 (25.5) 125 (13.6) 2.2 ± 1.0
(10) I did not like going to checkups because the medical staff frequently advised me about my weight gain during previous pregnancy checkups 99.6 504 (55.0) 243 (26.5) 103 (11.2) 62 (6.8) 1.7 ± 0.9
(11) I restricted my food intake as I was concerned about gaining weight 99.8 316 (34.5) 302 (33.0) 211 (23.0) 85 (9.3) 2.1 ± 1.0
(12) I restricted my salt intake as I was concerned about my blood pressure 99.9 443 (48.4) 269 (29.4) 147 (16.0) 56 (6.1) 1.8 ± 0.9
(13) I often experienced abdominal bloatinga 99.9 192 (21.0) 282 (30.8) 237 (25.9) 204 (22.3) 2.5 ± 1.1
(14) I was able to lead an orderly lifestyle 100.0 47 (5.1) 223 (24.3) 456 (49.8) 190 (20.7) 2.9 ± 0.8
(15) I tried to eat well-balanced meals 100.0 38 (4.1) 193 (21.1) 503 (54.9) 182 (19.9) 2.9 ± 0.8
(16) I exercised adequately 100.0 100 (10.9) 376 (41.0) 334 (36.5) 106 (11.6) 2.5 ± 0.8
(17) I slept well 100.0 65 (7.1) 278 (30.3) 370 (40.4) 203 (22.2) 2.8 ± 0.9
(18) When I woke from my sleep, I felt refreshed 100.0 78 (8.5) 343 (37.4) 378 (41.3) 117 (12.8) 2.6 ± 0.8
(19) I took holidays 100.0 58 (6.3) 231 (25.2) 371 (40.5) 256 (27.9) 2.9 ± 0.9
(20) I took adequate rest 99.9 51 (5.6) 219 (23.9) 401 (43.8) 244 (26.6) 2.9 ± 0.9
(21) At times I felt stresseda 99.8 84 (9.2) 251 (27.4) 393 (42.9) 186 (20.3) 2.8 ± 0.9
(22) I switched to shoes with low heels 99.7 29 (3.2) 28 (3.1) 101 (11.0) 755 (82.4) 3.7 ± 0.7
(23) I was careful not to fall 100.0 13 (1.4) 26 (2.8) 135 (14.7) 742 (81.0) 3.8 ± 0.6
(24) I refrained from driving a cara 99.7 640 (69.9) 137 (15.0) 62 (6.8) 74 (8.1) 1.5 ± 0.9
(25) There were some changes in my lifestyle compared to my pre-pregnancy daysa 99.7 110 (12.0) 285 (31.1) 283 (30.9) 235 (25.7) 2.7 ± 1.0
(26) My husband thoroughly supported me 99.9 71 (7.8) 220 (24.0) 309 (33.7) 315 (34.4) 3.0 ± 0.9
(27) My parents (including in-laws) thoroughly supported me 100.0 55 (6.0) 125 (13.6) 286 (31.2) 450 (49.1) 3.2 ± 0.9
(28) People other than my husband and parents (including in-laws) thoroughly supported me 99.9 199 (21.7) 247 (27.0) 290 (31.7) 179 (19.5) 2.5 ± 1.0
(29) I am satisfied with my husband’s support 99.8 112 (12.2) 216 (23.6) 293 (32.0) 293 (32.0) 2.8 ± 1.0
(30) I am satisfied with my parents’ (including in-laws) support 100.0 42 (4.6) 121 (13.2) 301 (32.9) 452 (49.3) 3.3 ± 0.9
(31) I am satisfied with the support that I received from others besides my husband and parents (including in-laws) 99.8 149 (16.3) 186 (20.3) 298 (32.5) 281 (30.7) 2.8 ± 1.1
(32) I took advantage of the Maternity Mark (a symbol for expectant mothers) and experienced the effectiveness of the symbol in public settingsa 99.5 443 (48.4) 278 (30.3) 132 (14.4) 58 (6.3) 1.8 ± 0.9
(33) I thought that the saying, “deliver them small and raise them big”, held true for me and my child(ren)a 99.7 191 (20.9) 294 (32.1) 248 (27.1) 180 (19.7) 2.5 ± 1.0
  1. Means were calculated by scoring responses as follows: “strongly disagree” = 1 point; “slightly disagree” = 2 points; “slightly agree” = 3 points, and “strongly agree” = 4 points
  2. aexcluded items; underlined numbers indicate items with floor or ceiling effects; SD standard deviation