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Table 1 ‘Causes’ statement set and factor scores

From: Who knows best? A Q methodology study to explore perspectives of professional stakeholders and community participants on health in low-income communities

# Statement Factors
  Health is worse in low-income communities because. . . F1 F2 F3
1 .. . people are unable to access space or places to meet others 0* − 4*  3*
2 .. . people don’t have good support networks 0 3* 0
3 .. . people feel like they are excluded from the rest of society 1 −3* 2
4 .. . there isn’t enough community spirit −2 −2 −2
5 .. . of low levels of education 1 −2 3*
6 .. . of unpredictable finances 3 2 2
7 .. . there is a lack of insight into what these communities need 1* 0* − 2*
8 .. . people see others in society with status symbols like expensive phones or cars which make them feel bad about their own situation because they can’t afford them 1 1 −2
9 .. . of the stress of making hard decisions like “do we eat?” or “do we heat?” 4 4 0*
10 .. . people don’t get to experience the outdoors like being in the mountains, forests or by the sea −1* − 2 − 2
11 .. . there is a lack of good quality, affordable housing 2 1 3
12 .. . there aren’t things for young people to do in their community 0 −1 −1
13 .. . of how the welfare system works 4* 1 2
14 .. . people struggle to get access to services that are available 2* − 4* 0*
15 .. . many people don’t have jobs that are secure, meaningful or that give them a sense of purpose 3 3 3
16 .. . people feel a sense of hopelessness from not being in control 1 1 4*
17 .. . people lack the ability to look after themselves 3* −1 0
18 .. . people can struggle with complicated family life, sexual, emotional or physical abuse 1*  1* 4*
19 .. . the culture of the community means people don’t have ambitions or goals  2* 1 1
20 .. . people are labelled, stereotyped and talked down to, they are not treated as individuals 2* 1 1
21 .. . the views of these communities aren’t taken into account 1*  2 −1
22 .. . it is difficult to leave an area to start a new life 0 −3* 0
23 .. . the people in these communities can’t cope with unexpected events or costs 0 3 1
24 .. . these communities tend to be dirty, polluted or in poor condition −1 −1 −1
25 .. . people don’t have a way to travel, they can’t afford a car or public transport 0 0 −3*
26 .. . having less money increases the cost of things people need like electricity or loans 3 2 1
27 .. . of poor parenting −3* 0* 2*
28 .. . people in these communities don’t follow health advice −2* 2* − 1*
29 .. . people don’t feel safe where they are living −1 0 1
30 .. . there is a culture of dependency and laziness in these communities −4 4* − 4
31 .. . people in these communities don’t take responsibility for their own health −3* 0 0
32 .. . governments don’t invest in these communities 2 2 −3*
33 .. . people have too many children −4 0* − 4
34 .. . people focus on short-term pleasures rather than thinking about the future − 2* 3* − 1*
  1. *Indicates distinguishing statements. Italics indicate consensus statements