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Table 1 Direct, indirect, cumulative and lifetime costs generated by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection

From: The role of insurance providers in supporting treatment and management of hepatitis C patients

Country/Reference Direct costs Indirect costs Cumulative cost Lifetime cost
USA [9]    $6.5 ($4.3–8.4) billion, increasing to $9.1 ($6.4–13.3) billion in 2024 $64,490
Canada [10] 56–81% (due to cirrhosis and its complications) 19–44%   $64,694
Germany [11] Mean total cost per patient for hepatic complications €556–1425, for extra-hepatic complications €1921-3547, for chronic HCV €116–577, for non-chronic HCV-related pharmacy costs €1479–3719   Mean total cost per patient €5430-10,108  
Belgium [12] €126 million (€30–257 million)   €1850 million  
France [13] 84% (47% due to liver cirrhosis, 18% to hepatocarcinoma and 19% to liver transplantation) 16% €65,956,938  
Spain [14] 71.5% 28.5% Mean total cost per patient €3198  
UK [15]     £97,555–125,359 for disability, £26,424–32,235 for healthcare
Ireland [16]    Mean total cost per patient €38,286–62,457 (interferon-based regimen), €55,734–81,873 (interferon-free regimen)  
Italy [17] 39.4% 60.6% €1.06 billion  
Iran [18] Total annual cost per patient USD1625.50, USD6,117.2, and USD11,047.2 for chronic HCV, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma    
Worldwide [19] Median cost of liver transplantation $139,070 ($15,430-443,700), refractory ascites $16,740 ($8990-35,940), hepatocellular carcinoma $15,310 ($3370-84,710), decompensated cirrhosis $14,660 ($3810-48,360), variceal hemorrhage $12,190 ($3550-46,120), hepatic encephalopathy $9180 ($5370-50,120), diuretic sensitive ascites $3400 ($1320-7470), compensated cirrhosis $820 ($50–2890), and chronic hepatitis C $280 ($90–1860).