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Table 3 Results of conditional FE logistic regression (with hospitalization as outcome measure; waves 2–4)

From: The association between voluntary work and health care use among older adults in Germany

  Independent variables Hospitalization (Ref.: No)
Predisposing factors Other marital statuses (ref.: Married, living together with spouse) 0.679 (0.374–1.232)
Retired (ref.: Working) 1.075 (0.687–1.683)
Other: not employed 1.788* (1.132–2.826)
Age (in years) 1.038** (1.009–1.067)
Enabling resources (Log) monthly equivalent net income 0.796 (0.552–1.149)
Self-rated accessibility of doctors and pharmacies (ref.: No accessibility) 1.188 (0.888–1.590)
Need factors Underweight (ref.: Normal weight) 1.466 (0.377–5.695)
Overweight 0.936 (0.646–1.356)
Obesity 0.930 (0.539–1.605)
Self-rated health (from “very good” to “very bad”) 1.741*** (1.493–2.031)
Number of chronic diseases 1.047 (0.968–1.133)
Currently smoking (ref.: Currently not smoking) 0.445** (0.262–0.757)
Volunteering Volunteer involvement (ref.: No volunteer involvement) 1.181 (0.841–1.657)
Observations 2186
Number of individuals 964
Pseudo R2 0.07
  1. Notes: Odds ratios were reported; 95% CI in parentheses
  2. Ref. = Reference
  3. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, + p < 0.10