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Table 2 Results of FE poisson regressions (with GP and specialist visits as outcome measures; waves 2–4)

From: The association between voluntary work and health care use among older adults in Germany

  Independent variables GP visits Specialist visits
Predisposing factors Other marital statuses (ref.: Married, living together with spouse) 0.0178 (0.0563) −0.0050 (0.0578)
Retired (ref.: Working) 0.1458** (0.0507) −0.0118 (0.0455)
Other: not employed 0.1822*** (0.0521) 0.0847+ (0.0449)
Age (in years) −0.0054+ (0.0032) −0.0086*** (0.0029)
Enabling resources (Log) monthly equivalent net income 0.0546 (0.0409) 0.0473 (0.0377)
Self-rated accessibility of doctors and pharmacies (ref.: No accessibility) 0.0172 (0.0306) 0.0052 (0.0291)
Need factors Underweight (ref.: Normal weight) 0.2651+ (0.1504) −0.0557 (0.1597)
Overweight −0.0123 (0.0421) −0.0649+ (0.0384)
Obesity −0.0416 (0.0612) −0.0443 (0.0621)
Self-rated health (from “very good” to “very bad”) 0.1706*** (0.0180) 0.1449*** (0.0175)
Number of chronic diseases 0.0619*** (0.0094) 0.0596*** (0.0091)
Currently smoking (ref.: Currently not smoking) −0.0684 (0.0652) −0.0782 (0.0570)
Volunteering Volunteer involvement (ref.: No volunteer involvement) 0.0066 (0.0360) 0.0625* (0.0300)
Observations 6586 7068
Number of individuals 3013 3233
  1. Notes: Beta coefficients were reported; Cluster-robust standard errors in parentheses
  2. Ref. = Reference, GP = General practitioner
  3. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, + p < 0.10