Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample characteristics of the individuals included in the FE regressions (waves 2–4, pooled)

From: The association between voluntary work and health care use among older adults in Germany

   Hospitalization (N = 2186) GP visits (N = 6586) Specialist visits (N = 7068)
Time constant variables (not included as independent variables in FE regressions) Female: N (%) 999 (45.7) 3188 (48.4) 3408 (48.2)
Low education (ISCED-97; 0–2): N (%) 175 (8.3) 462 (7.3) 481 (7.1)
Medium education (ISCED-97; 3–4): N (%) 1130 (53.5) 3293 (51.9) 3463 (50.8)
High education (ISCED-97; 5–6): N (%) 809 (38.3) 2595 (40.9) 2872 (42.1)
Predisposing factors Married, living together with spouse: N (%) 1624 (74.3) 4931 (74.9) 5290 (74.8)
Working: N (%) 612 (28.0) 2419 (36.7) 2615 (37.0)
Retired: N (%) 1345 (61.5) 3406 (51.7) 3638 (51.5)
Other: not employed: N (%) 229 (10.5) 761 (11.6) 815 (11.5)
Age (in years): mean (SD) 65.1 (10.8) 63 (11.0) 63 (11.0)
Enabling resources Monthly equivalent net income in Euro: mean (SD) 1734.6 (1436.6) 1728.7 (1436.1) 1786.2 (1636.9)
Enough doctors and pharmacies: N (%) 1849 (84.6) 5456 (82.8) 5891 (83.4)
Need factors Underweight: N (%) 20 (0.9) 42 (0.6) 45 (0.6)
Normal weight: N (%) 742 (33.9) 2431 (36.9) 2665 (37.7)
Overweight: N (%) 982 (44.9) 2828 (42.9) 3021 (42.7)
Obesity: N (%) 442 (20.2) 1285 (19.5) 1337 (18.9)
Self-rated health (from 1 = “very good” to 5 = “very bad”): mean (SD) 2.6 (0.8) 2.4 (0.8) 2.4 (0.8)
Number of chronic diseases: mean (SD) 2.9 (1.9) 2.4 (1.8) 2.4 (1.8)
Currently smoking: N (%) 338 (15.5) 1086 (16.5) 1157 (16.4)
Volunteering Voluntary work in groups and organisations: N (%) 419 (19.2) 1390 (21.1) 1503 (21.3)
  1. Notes: The numbers in the variable educational status do not sum up to 2186 / 6586 / 7068 due to missing values
  2. GP = General practitioner, ISCED = International Standard Classification of Education, SD = Standard deviation