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Table 3 Association between frailty and healthcare services use

From: Frailty and health services use among Quebec seniors with non-hip fractures: a population-based study using adminsitrative databases

Frailty (score) Before index date After index date Interaction (frailty*Period)
% Mean
(Median, Q1-Q3)
Adjusted RR % Mean
(Median, Q1, Q3)
Adjusted RR Adjusted RR
  Emergency Department (ED) visits
Robust (ERA ≤ − 1) 19.9 0.32 (0, 0–0) REF 31.4 0.55 (0, 0–1) REF 1.80 (1.65–1.96)
Well (ERA 0:3) 23.3 0.37 (0, 0–0) 1.09 (1.00–1.20) 35.8 0.64 (0, 0–1) 1.20 (1.12–1.27) 1.96 (1.89–2.04)
Well/comorbidities (ERA 4:8) 32.8 0.55 (0, 0–1) 1.47 (1.35–1.61) 45.8 0.91 (0, 0–1) 1.63 (1.53–1.75) 1.99 (1.92–2.06)
Pre-frail (ERA 9:15) 54.4 1.11 (0, 0–2) 2.56 (2.33–2.81) 55.1 1.24 (1, 0–2) 2.06 (1.92–2.21) 1.44 (1.38–1.51)
Frail (ERA ≥16) 75.3 2.03 (1, 1–1) 4.12 (3.74–4.55) 64.7 1.70 (1, 0–2) 2.69 (2.50–2.90) 1.17 (1.13–1.22)
  Primary care practitioner (PCP) visits
Robust (ERA ≤ − 1) 79.8 2.92 (2, 1–4) REF1 81.8 3.19 (2, 1–4) REF1 1.12 (1.09–1.14)
Well (ERA 0:3) 83.5 3.51 (3, 1–5) 1.14 (1.11–1.18) 84.3 3.69 (3, 1–5) 1.12 (1.09–1.16) 1.10 (1.09–1.11)
Well/comorbidities (ERA 4:8) 88.4 4.50 (4, 2–6) 1.33 (1.29–1.37) 85.1 4.38 (3, 1–6) 1.26 (1.22–1.30) 1.06 (1.05–1.07)
Pre-frail (ERA 9:15) 89.0 5.19 (4, 2–7) 1.43 (1.38–1.48) 82.3 4.54 (3, 1–6) 1.26 (1.22–1.30) 0.98 (0.97–1.00)
Frail (ERA ≥16) 88.9 5.87 (5, 2–8) 1.53 (1.47–1.59) 77.0 4.59 (3, 1–7) 1.28 (1.23–1.32) 0.93 (0.91–0.95)
  Number of hospital admissions
Robust (ERA ≤ − 1) 4.8 0.06 (0, 0–0) N/A 19.7 0.26 (0, 0–0) REF NA
Well (ERA 0:3) 6.9 0.09 (0, 0–0) N/A 23.5 0.32 (0, 0–0) 1.26 (1.17–1.36) NA
Well/comorbidities (ERA 4:8) 14.6 0.18 (0, 0–0) N/A 45.8 0.44 (0, 0–1) 1.66 (1.53–1.80) NA
Pre-frail (ERA 9:15) 43.0 0.58 (0, 0–1) N/A 39.6 0.61 (0, 0–1) 1.96 (1.81–2.13) NA
Frail (ERA ≥16) 67.0 1.16 (0, 0–2) N/A 27.9 0.87 (0, 0–1) 2.34 (2.14–2.55) NA
  Number of hospital days
Robust (ERA ≤ − 1)   0.0 (0,0–0) N/A   3.35 (0, 0–1) REF NA
Well (ERA 0:3)   0.0 (0, 0–0) N/A   5.74 (0, 0–3) 2.15 (1.89–2.45) NA
Well/comorbidities (ERA 4:8)   0.18 (0, 0–0) N/A   10.46 (0, 0–10) 4.57 (4.00–5.22) NA
Pre-frail (ERA 9:15)   4.22 (0, 0–4) N/A   14.76 (2, 0–17) 5.48 (4.76–6.31) NA
Frail (ERA ≥16)   12.54 (7, 0–17) N/A   21.80 (9, 0–29) 7.57 (6.56–8.74) NA
  1. RR Risk Ratio, REF Reference category