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Table 1 Description of the Implementation Program Components by Phase

From: Implementing a case management intervention for frequent users of the emergency department (I-CaM): an effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial study protocol

Implementation program components


Implementation phase

ED staff involvement

Needs and interest assessment

I-CaM team sends a survey to all eligible hospitals to assess health-providers needs and interests regarding the CM intervention.


10 min

Hospital orientation

I-CaM team meets with key ED staff to provide more information about the CM intervention and the study procedures.


2 h


Interested key ED staff participate in a one-day workshop aiming to provide basic training on the CM intervention and assist in their decision of whether to adopt the CM intervention


1 day

CM toolkit

The CM toolkit includes a detailed description of the CM intervention components, a validated framework of vulnerability among FUEDs to use as a screening tool and a booklet with practical information to use as models for the implementing sites.

Preparation, operation and sustainability

Continued use

Team member selection support

Provides a description of key team member characteristics to support team member selection at implementing sites


Continued use

Site visits & training

I-CaM team meets with key staff in implementing sites to provide support to establish available resources on-site, to tailor the CM intervention to local realities and to provide training and coaching regarding the CM intervention to the full CM team


2 visits of 2 h

Coaching, technical assistance & feedback

The I-CaM coach (I-CaM research nurse) conducts site visits every three months with as needed support to provide tailored assistance and feedback to each site


Between 4 and 8 h depending on sites’ needs


The I-CaM coach provides support and technical assistance upon request from implementing sites


Depending on sites’ needs