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Table 2 Baseline characteristics and surgical details of the pre-awareness and post-awareness groups

From: Quality improvement strategies for organizational change: a multiphase observational study to increase insight into nonparticipating organizations

  Pre-awareness
(n = 150)
Post-awareness
(n = 150)
p value
Age in years, mean ± SD 61.8 ± 12.2 65.1 ± 12.7 0.024a
ASA classification, n (%)    0.757b
  I/II 124 (82.7) 126 (84.0)  
  III/IV 26 (17.3) 24 (16.0)  
(Suspected) diagnosis, n (%)    0.110b
  Ovarian cancer 115 (76.7) 114 (76.0)  
  Uterine cancer 27 (18.0) 34 (22.7)  
  Cervical cancer 8 (5.3) 2 (1.3)  
Histological subtype, n (%)    0.111b
  Benign 37 (24.7) 27 (18.0)  
  Borderline / hyperplasia 14 (9.3) 8 (5.3)  
  Malignant 99 (66.0) 115 (76.7)  
Surgical approach, n (%)    >  0.999c
  Midline incision 147 (98.0) 147 (98.0)  
  Transverse incision 3 (2.0) 3 (2.0)  
Operation time in minutes, mean ± SD 138.9 ± 72.0 142.7 ± 67.5 0.632a
Type of surgery (only ovarian included), n (%)    0.027b
  Explorative 50 (43.5) 40 (35.1)  
  Staging 13 (11.3) 6 (5.3)  
  Primary cytoreductive 11 (9.6) 25 (21.9)  
  Secondary cytoreductive 41 (35.7) 43 (37.7)  
Additional surgical procedure, n (%)    
  Open-close (inoperable) 1 (0.7) 5 (3.3) 0.214c
  Anastomosis 6 (4.0) 7 (4.7) 0.777b
  Diverting stoma 6 (4.0) 9 (6.0) 0.427b
  Lymphadenectomy 34 (22.7) 27 (18.0) 0.315b
  Extensive upper abdominal surgery * 4 (2.7) 8 (5.3) 0.239b
  1. Group differences were tested using the independent samples t-test a, Chi-square test b, or Fisher’s exact test c. ASA = American Society of Anesthesiologists, n = number of patients, SD = standard deviation. * Includes diaphragmatic stripping, partial liver resection, or splenectomy