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Table 4 Multivariate Regression Models of good governance and other independent variables on stunting among children age 6–59 months in Ethiopia

From: Good governance, public health expenditures, urbanization and child undernutrition Nexus in Ethiopia: an ecological analysis

Variables Model_1 Model_2
Odds ratio R. Sta. err p-value Odds ratio R. Sta. err p-value
Government effectiveness 3.90 5.75 0.354 20.7 31.46 0.046
Regulatory quality 0.09 0.19 0.252 0.0077 0.0168 0.026
Control corruption 0.02 0.02 0.009 0.0019 0.0032 0.000
Region (Tigray region is ref.) Affar     0.95 0.076 0.542
Amhara     1.14 0.08 0.054
Oromia     0.79 0.05 0.000
Somali     0.592 0.048 0.000
Beni-Gumuz     0.915 0.069 0.244
SNNP     0.968 0.062 0.618
Gambela     0.519 0.048 0.000
Harari     0.601 0.054 0.000
Addis Ababa     0.6710 0.076 0.000
Dire Dawa     0.624 0.061 0.000
Sex (Male is ref.) Female     0.876 0.022 0.000
Partner’s education level (Ref. No education) Primary     0.924 0.031 0.020
Secondary     0.711 0.045 0.000
Higher     0.622 0.567 0.000
Current age of child (0 years is ref.) 1 years     4.44 0.192 0.000
2 years     6.39 0.279 0.000
3 years     5.851 0.264 0.000
4 years     4.706 0.219 0.000
Wealth index Quintile (Poorest is ref.) Poorer     0.952 0.042 0.267
Middle     0.904 0.040 0.023
Richer     0.842 0.037 0.000
Richest     0.746 0.041 0.000
Toilet type (Unimproved is ref.) Improved/modern sanitation     0.825 0.041 0.000
Drinking source (Unimproved is ref.) Improved source of drinking water     0.905 0.042 0.031
Residence (Urban is ref.) Rural     1.117 0.077 0.109
Highest educational level of the respondents (illiterate is ref.) Primary     0.918 0.035 0.027
Secondary     0.595 0.050 0.000
Higher     0.447 0.077 0.000
Number of children under five (≤ 2 is ref.) > 2     0.879 0.036 0.002
Sex of household head (Male is ref.) Female     1.065 0.042 0.108
Respondent’s occupation (Not working is ref.) Paid working     1.055 0.042 0.175
Agricultural     1.043 0.041 0.279
Partner’soccupation (Not working is ref.) Paid working     1.102 0.084 0.201
Agricultural     1.131 0.080 0.082
Parity (parity≤3 is ref.) Parity more than 3     1.133 0.046 0.002
Age of women (15–19 is the ref.) 20–24     0.980 0.076 0.797
25–29     0.926 0.076 0.347
30–34     0.890 0.075 0.167
35–39     0.863 0.075 0.091
40–44     0.768 0.075 0.007
45–49     0.680 0.078 0.001
Number of householdmembers (1–3 members is ref.) 4–6 members     0.960 0.047 0.405
>  7 members     0.977 0.055 0.681
R2   0.0160 0.1128