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Table 2 Presenteeism work-related exposures and outcomes measures identified in reviewed publications

From: Presenteeism exposures and outcomes amongst hospital doctors and nurses: a systematic review

Organizational Exposures/ outcomes measured Adopted scale origins Publications Reliability (Cronbach’s α)
Work stressors
 Time pressure Effort-Reward Imbalance scale Dellve 2011 0.57–0.78
 Job demands/ work pressure Furda 1995 Demerouti 2009 0.83–0.85
 Physical demands Self-derived items Demerouti 2009
 Ergonomic factors (stooping) Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire d’Errico 2013 0.64–0.86
 Patient demands Herschbach 1992 Demerouti 2009 0.80–0.85
 Musculoskeletal pain/disease Self-derived items Dellve 2011
World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) Warren 2011
Self-derived items Letvak 2012 0.72–0.99
Self-derived items Martinez 2012
Nordic questionnaire of musculoskeletal symptoms Trinkoff 2006
 Role conflicts Self-derived items Sendén 2013
 Organizational justice Moorman 1991 d’Errico 2013 0.70
 Working group climate Francis and Young 1979 d’Errico 2013 0.88
 Quality of working process Francis and Young 1979 d’Errico 2013 0.77
 High Responsibility Effort-Reward Imbalance scale Dellve 2011 0.57–0.78
 Limited lifting equipment Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire Skela-Savič 2017
Work resources
 Effort-reward balance Effort-Reward Imbalance scale Dellve 2011 0.57–0.78
 Decision making/ work pace control General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological & Social Factors at Work (QPS Nordic) Thun 2014 0.45–0.84
 Income Self-derived items Martinez 2012
 Institutional flu measures Self-derived items LaVela 2007
 Organizational care The General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work Sendén 2013 role conflict: 0.74, organizational care: 0.83
 Social support Self-derived item Dellve 2011
Self-derived item Thun 2014
 Supervisory support McAllister 1995 d’Errico 2013 0.89
Andersen 2010 Thun 2014
 Affective commitment Mowday 1979 Yang 2017 0.85
Work Psychosocial Emotions
 Optimism/ positive work feelings/ daily activity well-being/ meaningfulness Self-derived items Dellve 2011
Hospital Anxiety & Depression scale (single positive item)  
 Job satisfaction Self-derived items Rantanen 2011
 Burnout Maslach Burnout Inventory Dutch version Demerouti 2009 depersonalization: 0.62–0.68, emotional exhaustion: 0.86–0.90
Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire Dellve 2011 0.97
Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) d’Errico 2013 0.71–0.91
Oldenburg Burnout Inventory Thun 2014 exhaustion: 0.80, disengagement 0.77
Utrecht Burn-out Scale Vandenbroeck 2017
 Psychological stress/ Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological & Social Factors at Work (single item) Dellve 2011
Self-derived items Martinez 2012
Challenge and hindrance-related self-reported stress (C-HSS) Yang 2017 0.87–0.75
Inventory of stress in nurses (ISN) Umann 2014 interpersonal relationships: 0.90, roles of stressors: 0.82, work intrinsic factors: 0.79
 Work dissatisfaction Perceived Stress Scale (PSS 10) Skela-Savič 2017 0.86
Work Outcomes
 Medication errors Self-derived item Letvak 2013
 Patient falls Self-derived item Letvak 2013
 Quality of care Kramer 2004 Letvak 2013 0.80–0.90