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Table 3 Items and sub-factors of the final scale including mean, SD, Cronbach’s alpha values and factor loadings

From: The development and validation of a scale to explore staff experience of governance of economic efficiency and quality (GOV-EQ) of health care

Sub-factors and items (of subscale A/B) Cronbach’s Alpha Mean (SD) F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8
Knowledge and awareness (A) 0.86 2.99 (.91)         
 1. I know how I should take the unit’s financial situation into consideration in my work.   3.26 (1.19)       −.802   
 2. I know what I can do to make the unit’s financial situation as good as possible.   3.09 (1.17)       −.809   
 3. I know how to deal responsibly with the unit’s financial resources.   3.26 (1.18)       −.711   
 4. I know how to plan my work to ensure that we stay within the unit’s budget.   2.58 (1.21)       −.786   
 5. I find it difficult to see how I can influence the unit’s financial situation (R).   2.54 (1.30)       −.500   
 6. I am aware of the unit’s financial situation when I make decisions in my work with patients.   3.22 (1.06)       −.326   
Opportunity to influence (A) 0.89 1.97 (.95)         
 7. I get involved in discussions concerning the unit’s financial situation.   2.07 (1.12)     −.795     
 8. I can influence how the financial resources are used in the unit.   1.77 (1.07)     −.925     
 9. I am able to express my opinions on how we can use the unit’s resources more efficiently.   2.37 (1.09)     −.728     
 10. My opinions matter when budgetary decisions are made.   1.72 (1.07)     −.838     
Motivation (A) 0.83 3.08 (1.01)         
 11. It’s motivating to work with issues that concern the unit’s financial situation.   2.54 (1.19)      .822    
 12. It’s fulfilling to try to improve the unit’s financial situation.   3.51 (1.18)      .803    
 13. I am interested in the unit’s financial situation.   3.22 (1.16)      .693    
Impact on professional autonomy (A) 0.62 3.31 (.92)         
 14. The unit’s financial status affects my ability to do what is best for patients.   3.53 (1.19)        .499  
 15. The unit’s financial limitations affect my ability to adhere to my own ethical values.   2.97 (1.26)        .638  
 16. I feel free to do what is best for the patient, regardless of the unit’s financial situation (R).   3.44 (1.21)        .315  
Organizational alignment (A) 0.87 2.29 (.84)         
 17. I think the unit’s financial resources are reasonable.   2.27 (.99)   .830       
 18. We have the financial resources needed to meet patient needs.   2.26 (1.07)   .831       
 19. I think the unit’s financial situation is sustainable.   2.19 (.91)   .906       
 20. The unit’s financial status is sufficient to allow us to fulfill our mission.   2.30 (1.01)   .739       
 21. The financial requirements placed on the unit negatively impact our patients. (R)   2.36 (1.16)   .568       
Single item: Impact on clinical behavior (A)           
 22. I take the unit’s financial situation into consideration in my clinical work.   3.32 (1.00) .342     .389    
Knowledge and awareness (B) 0.82 4.06 (.72)         
 23. I know what leads to good quality care for our patients.   4.09 (.88) 0.637        
 24. I know what I should do, in my role, to ensure that we maintain high levels of quality.   4.35 (.72) 0.821        
 25. I know how I can get involved in quality improvement.   3.59 (1.14) 0.454        
 26. I know how to plan my work to ensure that what I do is of good quality.   4.21 (.80) 0.877        
Opportunity to influence (B) 0.89 3.31 (.91)         
 27. I can influence how the unit works with quality improvement.   3.10 (1.17)    −.817      
 28. I participate in the unit’s work with quality improvement.   3.40 (1.18)    −.687      −.340
 29. I can influence where we focus our improvement work.   3.01 (1.16)    −.933      
 30. My opinions matter when we work with quality improvement.   3.13 (1.09)    −.834      
 31. By the time we begin our work on quality improvement, it has already been decided how it should be carried out. (R)   3.28 (1.08)    −.622      
 32. I find it difficult to see how I can influence quality at the unit. (R)   3.85 (1.07)    −.377      
Motivation (B) 0.78 4.15 (.69)         
 33. Quality improvement work is motivating.   4.11 (.94)         −.762
 34. I think it is part of my role to get involved with quality improvement.   4.27 (.73)         −.763
 35. It’s fulfilling to try to improve quality at the unit.   4.32 (.92)         −.310
 36. I am interested in how we compare to other units with regard to quality.   3.89 (.96)         −.338
Single item: Impact on clinical behavior (B)           
 37. I take quality into consideration in my clinical work.   4.24 (.85) .561        
  1. Notes: Factor loadings (PAF, direct oblim) for items on to assigned factors. Factor loadings <.3 are omitted from the Table. (R) indicates that the item is reversely scored