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Table 1 Testing of differences in terms of socio-demographic variables, health conditions, medical utilization data, and health behavior among respondents willing and unwilling to accept data linkage

From: National health data linkage and the agreement between self-reports and medical records for middle-aged and older adults in Taiwan

  Entire < 65 (58–64) 65+
NO (%) YES (%) T/X2 Value NO (%) YES (%) T/X2 Value NO (%) YES (%) T/X2 Value
N = 126 (3.38%) N = 3601 (96.61%) N = 45 (3.46%) N = 1256 (96.54%) N = 81 (3.33%) N = 2345 (96.67%)
Socio-demographic variables
 Age Mean ± SD (min-max/median) 71.26 ± 9.97 (58–93/70) 71.15 ± 9.98 (58–101/70) 0.12 60.89 ± 2.01 (58–64)/61 60.61 ± 1.96 (58–64)/61 0.95 77.02 ± 7.67 (65–93/76) 76.80 ± 7.71 (65–101/76) 0.26
 Female (ref = Male) 69 (54.8) 1838 (51.0) 0.67 22 (48.9) 641 (51.0) 0.08 47 (58.0) 1197 (51.0) 1.53
 Level of education    1.73    1.96    0.74
  No education 19 (15.1) 684 (19.0)   0 (0.0) 37 (3.0)   19 (23.5) 647 (27.6)  
  Primary school 59 (46.8) 1707 (47.4)   17 (37.8) 597 (47.5)   39 (48.1) 1095 (46.7)  
  Junior high or higher 48 (38.1) 1210 (33.6)   28 (62.2) 622 (49.5)   23 (28.4) 603 (25.7)  
 Married 87 (69.1) 2316 (64.3) 1.19 40 (88.9) 997 (79.4) 2.43 47 (58.0) 1319 (56.3) 0.10
 Living alone 14 (11.1) 322 (8.9) 0.70 3 (6.7) 80 (6.4) 0.01 11 (13.6) 242 (10.3) 0.89
Health conditions
 Comorbidities (8 options) 1.13 ± 1.17 1.35 ± 1.21 −1.96 0.71 ± 0.90 0.93 ± 1.02 −1.43 1.37 ± 1.24 1.57 ± 1.25 −1.44
 Self-reported health conditions (Number of questions = 1; total score = 5) 3.25 ± 0.99 3.17 ± 0.98 0.81 3.39 ± 0.99 3.43 ± 0.93 −0.32 3.15 ± 0.99 3.01 ± 0.98 1.17
 Mobility (Number of Questions = 9; Total Score = 27) 6.33 ± 8.47 5.81 ± 7.85 0.72 1.02 ± 2.21 1.74 ± 4.20 −2.05* 9.27 ± 9.21 8.00 ± 8.46 1.33
 IADL (Number of questions = 6; total score = 18) 3.45 ± 6.33 3.1 ± 5.53 0.61 0.07 ± 0.45 0.59 ± 2.51 −5.40*** 5.33 ± 7.24 4.45 ± 6.20 1.25
 ADL (Number of questions =6; total score = 18) 2.21 ± 5.31 1.53 ± 4.35 1.41 0.00 ± 0.00 0.26 ± 1.85 −5.00*** 3.43 ± 6.31 2.21 ± 5.09 1.73
 CESD (Number of questions = 10; total score = 30) 4.19 ± 5.18 4.76 ± 5.9 −0.86 2.61 ± 3.41 3.54 ± 4.74 −1.75 5.25 ± 5.77 5.34 ± 6.14 −0.12
 SPMSQ (Number of questions = 9; total score = 9) 8.06 ± 1.69 8.16 ± 1.43 −0.59 8.86 ± 0.35 8.68 ± 0.69 3.21** 7.52 ± 2.01 7.84 ± 1.66 −1.28
Medical utilization
 Outpatient clinic visits    6.43*    4.87    4.03
  0 54 (42.8) 1215 (33.7)   23 (51.1) 554 (44.1)   31 (38.3) 661 (28.2)  
  1 39 (31.0) 1498 (41.6)   9 (20.0) 444 (35.4)   30 (37.0) 1054 (45.0)  
  2+ 33 (26.2) 888 (24.7)   13 (28.9) 258 (20.5)   20 (24.7) 630 (26.8)  
 Traditional Chinese medicine 18 (14.3) 364 (10.1) 2.31 10 (22.2) 169 (13.5) 2.81 8 (9.9) 195 (8.3) 0.25
Health behavior
 Smoking 8 (6.4) 473 (13.1) 4.99* 3 (6.7) 232 (18.5) 4.09 5 (6.2) 241 (10.3) 1.45
 Chewing betel nuts 3 (2.4) 137 (3.8) 0.68    0.12    0.73
 Alcohol consumption 29 (23.0) 995 (27.6) 1.30 16 (35.6) 468 (37.3) 0.05 13 (16.1) 527 (22.5) 1.87
 Exercise    1.92    0.17    4.13*
  Irregular (Less than 3 times a week) 63 (50.0) 1576 (43.8)   18 (40.0) 541 (431)   45 (55.6) 1035 (44.1)  
  Regular (3 times or more a week) 63 (50.0) 2025 (56.2)   27 (60.0) 715 (56.9)   36 (44.4) 1310 (55.9)  
 Diet    5.06    0.17    8.44*
  Unhealthy diet 43 (34.1) 1235 (34.3)   11 (24.4) 339 (27.0)   32 (39.5) 896 (38.2)  
  Slightly healthy diet 54 (42.9) 1243 (34.5)   15 (33.3) 392 (31.2)   39 (48.2) 851 (36.3)  
  Healthy diet 29 (23.0) 1123 (31.2)   19 (42.2) 525 (41.8)   10 (12.3) 598 (25.5)  
 Social support (Number of questions = 5; total score = 20) 8.22 ± 3.33 9.13 ± 3.27 −2.64** 8.88 ± 3.20 9.27 ± 3.20 −0.77 7.74 ± 3.39 9.04 ± 3.31 −2.84**
  1. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001