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Table 3 Differences in differences for inpatient admissions

From: Early evidence from South Carolina’s Medicare-Medicaid dual-eligible financial alignment initiative: an observational study to understand who enrolled, and whether the program improved health?

Variables Avoidable Hospitalization LOS Total Charges SNF placement
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Post 0.0144*** (0.00282) 0.0145*** (0.00282) − 0.229*** (0.0799) −0.228*** (0.0799) 3839*** (429.2) 3947*** (425.4) 0.0242*** (0.00242) 0.0238*** (0.00242)
Treatment −0.0202** (0.00864) −0.0141 (0.00865) − 0.862*** (0.242) − 0.955*** (0.244) − 2651** (1142) − 3090*** (1144) −0.148*** (0.00686) − 0.151*** (0.00686)
Post X treatment 0.0410** (0.0169) 0.0429** (0.0169) 1.111** (0.464) 1.183** (0.464) 555.1 (2251) 1232 (2233) 0.00161 (0.0132) −0.00180 (0.0131)
Age 0.00189*** (9.25e-05) 0.00188*** (9.23e-05) −0.00395 (0.00262) − 0.00427 (0.00262) − 288.1*** (13.83) − 280.9*** (13.77) 0.00999*** (7.39e-05) 0.00996*** (7.39e-05)
Female −0.000219 (0.00280) − 0.000956 (0.00280) − 0.494*** (0.0828) − 0.511*** (0.0828) − 5962*** (444.9) − 6007*** (442.0) −0.0100*** (0.00239) − 0.00991*** (0.00238)
Urban −0.0205*** (0.00285) −0.00817 (0.00587) 0.321*** (0.0787) 0.166 (0.177) 4842*** (405.4) 1476* (894.4) 0.0170*** (0.00241) 0.00633 (0.00570)
Black 0.0160*** (0.00284) 0.0204*** (0.00296) 0.743*** (0.0841) 0.360*** (0.0875) −543.1 (436.2) − 1075** (457.6) −0.0448*** (0.00251) − 0.0403*** (0.00263)
Other race 0.0153*** (0.00432) 0.0200*** (0.00433) 0.360*** (0.125) 0.105 (0.126) − 2025*** (639.8) − 2436*** (644.3) − 0.0654*** (0.00324) − 0.0620*** (0.00328)
CHARLSON INDEX −0.0186*** (0.00179) − 0.0186*** (0.00179) 0.142*** (0.0516) 0.131** (0.0517) 492.7* (265.6) 514.4* (263.9) 0.0217*** (0.00159) 0.0220*** (0.00159)
Congestive Heart Failure 0.167*** (0.00403) 0.165*** (0.00404) 0.426*** (0.111) 0.468*** (0.111) 2853*** (568.9) 3003*** (565.1) − 0.00589* (0.00343) − 0.00788** (0.00343)
Cardiac Arrhythmias 0.00692** (0.00316) 0.00775** (0.00316) 0.683*** (0.0910) 0.649*** (0.0911) 4010*** (479.1) 4246*** (476.3) − 0.00259 (0.00264) − 0.00140 (0.00264)
Valvular Disease 0.00399 (0.00423) 0.00646 (0.00427) 0.246** (0.112) 0.158 (0.113) 7466*** (657.9) 5418*** (658.6) −0.0273*** (0.00342) − 0.0210*** (0.00346)
Pulmonary Circulation Disorders 0.00458 (0.00528) 0.00909* (0.00528) 1.088*** (0.136) 1.004*** (0.136) 4817*** (754.0) 5205*** (746.7) 0.0211*** (0.00408) 0.0187*** (0.00408)
Peripheral Vascular Disorders −0.00981** (0.00459) − 0.00918** (0.00458) 0.289** (0.127) 0.302** (0.128) 8542*** (716.2) 8862*** (711.6) −0.0220*** (0.00394) − 0.0230*** (0.00394)
Hypertension, Uncomplicated −0.00244 (0.00291) − 0.00434 (0.00291) −1.182*** (0.0902) −1.141*** (0.0903) − 4543*** (474.4) − 4725*** (471.5) −0.0648*** (0.00265) − 0.0643*** (0.00266)
Paralysis −0.0115* (0.00693) − 0.0124* (0.00690) 1.758*** (0.246) 1.785*** (0.246) 6502*** (1242) 6439*** (1235) 0.0551*** (0.00690) 0.0553*** (0.00689)
Other Neurological Disorders −0.0377*** (0.00330) −0.0340*** (0.00329) 1.101*** (0.103) 1.084*** (0.104) 4892*** (529.1) 4664*** (527.5) 0.112*** (0.00313) 0.109*** (0.00313)
Chronic Pulmonary Disease 0.138*** (0.00340) 0.136*** (0.00340) −0.698*** (0.0948) −0.606*** (0.0949) − 852.2* (497.6) − 677.7 (494.4) − 0.0827*** (0.00286) − 0.0834*** (0.00286)
Diabetes, Uncomplicated 0.0653*** (0.00347) 0.0656*** (0.00347) −0.252** (0.101) −0.249** (0.101) 1735*** (521.1) 1165** (517.7) − 0.0182*** (0.00309) − 0.0183*** (0.00309)
Diabetes, Complicated 0.162*** (0.00514) 0.161*** (0.00513) 0.520*** (0.138) 0.495*** (0.138) − 1026 (722.3) −550.3 (717.1) − 0.0155*** (0.00430) − 0.0155*** (0.00429)
Hypothyroidism −0.0167*** (0.00386) − 0.0167*** (0.00385) − 0.188* (0.106) − 0.142 (0.106) − 1470*** (536.4) − 1625*** (531.5) 0.000919 (0.00335) 0.000201 (0.00334)
Renal Failure 0.0993*** (0.00628) 0.0979*** (0.00627) 0.744*** (0.173) 0.828*** (0.173) 5868*** (954.6) 5843*** (949.4) −0.0295*** (0.00537) − 0.0297*** (0.00537)
Liver Disease −0.00479 (0.00582) −0.00413 (0.00581) 0.0679 (0.176) 0.171 (0.177) 1089 (946.3) 2005** (943.8) − 0.0634*** (0.00441) −0.0653*** (0.00442)
Peptic Ulcer Disease Excluding Bleeding −0.0223*** (0.00845) − 0.0197** (0.00844) 0.350 (0.259) 0.361 (0.259) 2312 (1616) 2188 (1611) −0.0489*** (0.00700) − 0.0511*** (0.00698)
AIDS/HIV 0.0467*** (0.0150) 0.0495*** (0.0150) −0.344 (0.485) − 0.421 (0.485) 1731 (2776) 1425 (2761) − 0.132*** (0.0122) − 0.132*** (0.0122)
Lymphoma 0.0191 (0.0126) 0.0225* (0.0126) 1.472*** (0.373) 1.512*** (0.372) 9788*** (2084) 10,119*** (2074) −0.0813*** (0.0101) −0.0810*** (0.0100)
Metastatic Cancer 0.0446*** (0.0131) 0.0457*** (0.0131) −0.519 (0.398) −0.492 (0.399) − 3457* (2065) − 3342 (2049) −0.177*** (0.0116) − 0.178*** (0.0116)
Solid Tumor Without Metastasis 0.00197 (0.00618) 0.00247 (0.00618) 0.101 (0.178) 0.104 (0.178) 4479*** (961.6) 4363*** (952.8) −0.103*** (0.00516) −0.104*** (0.00516)
Rheumatoid Arthritis/Collagen Vascular −0.0297*** (0.00545) −0.0287*** (0.00545) − 0.397*** (0.151) −0.374** (0.151) 673.3 (829.7) 806.4 (824.9) −0.0225*** (0.00441) −0.0204*** (0.00441)
Coagulopathy −0.0331*** (0.00515) − 0.0349*** (0.00514) 0.782*** (0.156) 0.730*** (0.156) 6034*** (830.9) 6450*** (826.5) −0.00367 (0.00438) − 0.00422 (0.00438)
Obesity −0.0112*** (0.00390) −0.0112*** (0.00390) − 0.445*** (0.100) −0.455*** (0.100) − 869.6 (553.6) 90.22 (550.6) − 0.00462 (0.00285) − 0.00625** (0.00285)
Weight Loss 0.00249 (0.00425) 0.00491 (0.00425) 2.612*** (0.136) 2.569*** (0.136) 13,957*** (733.5) 14,321*** (728.8) 0.0763*** (0.00392) 0.0773*** (0.00392)
Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders 0.0684*** (0.00285) 0.0649*** (0.00286) 0.309*** (0.0809) 0.357*** (0.0810) −491.2 (425.9) −690.2 (423.4) 0.0142*** (0.00241) 0.0149*** (0.00241)
Blood Loss Anemia −0.0704*** (0.00933) −0.0741*** (0.00932) 0.448* (0.263) 0.545** (0.262) 4827*** (1443) 4920*** (1425) 0.00792 (0.00828) 0.00764 (0.00826)
Deficiency Anemia 0.00181 (0.00465) 0.00234 (0.00463) 0.263** (0.129) 0.237* (0.129) − 737.3 (659.8) −22.50 (655.8) 0.0101*** (0.00373) 0.00913** (0.00373)
Alcohol Abuse −0.0465*** (0.00541) −0.0457*** (0.00540) −0.533*** (0.170) −0.576*** (0.170) − 5492*** (852.2) − 5410*** (848.0) −0.0446*** (0.00403) − 0.0440*** (0.00403)
Drug Abuse 0.0249*** (0.00560) 0.0258*** (0.00559) 0.101 (0.156) 0.126 (0.156) − 4140*** (771.4) − 3867*** (765.0) −0.0451*** (0.00318) −0.0440*** (0.00318)
Psychoses −0.0310*** (0.00455) − 0.0299*** (0.00455) 2.708*** (0.167) 2.616*** (0.167) − 4081*** (674.3) − 3745*** (672.4) 0.0630*** (0.00418) 0.0619*** (0.00418)
Depression −0.00661** (0.00328) −0.00401 (0.00328) − 0.307*** (0.0923) −0.274*** (0.0928) − 3703*** (479.4) − 3587*** (478.0) 0.0330*** (0.00270) 0.0304*** (0.00271)
Hypertension, Complicated 0.00145 (0.00536) 0.00527 (0.00536) −0.348** (0.141) −0.414*** (0.142) − 3307*** (793.5) − 3350*** (789.7) −0.0227*** (0.00447) − 0.0230*** (0.00447)
Constant 0.0885*** (0.00658) 0.0355** (0.0163) 8.463*** (0.194) 8.215*** (0.574) 76,682*** (1067) 66,435*** (2507) −0.323*** (0.00504) −0.364*** (0.0141)
Observations 199,649 199,643 199,649 199,643 199,649 199,643 199,649 199,643
R-squared 0.073 0.078 0.015 0.018 0.019 0.036 0.123 0.127
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1