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Table 2 Factors associated with diagnosis delay among MDR-TB patients (n = 210)

From: Delay in diagnosis and treatment among adult multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Yangon Regional Tuberculosis Center, Myanmar: a cross-sectional study

Variables Diagnosis Delay n (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
<  9 Days ≥ 9 Days p value COR (95% CI) p value AOR (95% CI)
Demographic factors
 Sex
  Male 54 (41.2) 77 (58.8)   1.00   1.00
  Female 33 (41.8) 46 (58.2) 0.94 0.98 (0.56–1.72) 0.51 0.76 (0.34–1.70)
 Age
  ≤ 30 years 28 (45.2) 34 (54.8)   1.00   1.00
  31–50 years 33 (39.3) 51 (60.7) 0.48 1.27 (0.66–2.47) 0.72 0.86 (0.38–1.95)
  > 50 years 26 (40.6) 38 (59.4) 0.61 1.20 (0.59–2.44) 0.09 0.42 (0.15–1.14)
 Family member
   ≥ 4 52 (42.6) 70 (57.4)   1.00   1.00
   < 4 35 (39.8) 53 (60.2) 0.68 1.13 (0.64–1.97) 0.88 0.95 (0.44–2.02)
Socio economic factors
 Education a
  Middle school education level and above 69 (48.6) 73 (51.4)   1.00   1.00
  Below middle school education level 18 (26.5) 50 (73.5) 0.003 2.63 (1.39–4.94) 0.02 2.75 (1.22–6.21)
 Occupation b
  Employed (permanent salary) 42 (53.8) 36 (46.2)   1.00   1.00
  Employed (non-permanent salary) 24 (28.6) 60 (71.4) 0.001 2.92 (1.52–5.59) 0.01 3.03 (1.32–6.95)
  Unemployed 21 (43.8) 27 (56.3) 0.27 1.50 (0.73–3.09) 0.28 1.87 (0.59–5.85)
 Family income
   > 400,000 Kyats 12 (41.4) 17 (58.6)   1.00   1.00
  200,001–400,000 Kyats 52 (41.6) 73 (58.4) 0.98 0.99 (0.44–2.25) 0.44 0.68 (0.26–1.82)
   ≤ 200,000 Kyats 23 (41.1) 33 (58.9) 0.97 1.01 (0.41–2.52) 0.43 0.63 (0.19–2.01)
Disease factors
 Types of MDR-TB patients
  New 11 (42.3) 15 (57.7)   1.00   1.00
  Previously Treated 76 (41.3) 108 (58.7) 0.92 1.04 (0.45–2.39) 0.99 0.99 (0.30–3.29)
 Contact with MDR-TB patient
  No 57 (41.0) 82 (59.0)   1.00   1.00
  Yes 30 (42.3) 41 (57.7) 0.86 0.95 (0.53–1.69) 0.95 1.02 (0.45–2.31)
 Diabetes Mellitus
  Absent 79 (46.5) 91 (53.5)   1.00   1.00
  Present 8 (20.0) 32 (80.0) 0.003 3.47 (1.51–7.97) 0.001 5.06 (1.97–13.01)
 HIV status
  Absent 80 (42.3) 109 (57.7)   1.00   1.00
  Present 7 (33.3) 14 (66.7) 0.43 1.47 (0.57–3.80) 0.16 2.23 (0.74–6.74)
 First visit medical provider c
  Self-initiative 12 (66.7) 6 (33.3)   1.00   1.00
  General Practitioner 67 (39.4) 103 (60.6) 0.03 3.08 (1.10–8.59) 0.18 2.18 (0.69–6.90)
  Hospitals and NGOs 8 (36.4) 14 (63.6) 0.61 3.50 (0.95–12.97) 0.36 2.02 (0.45–9.01)
Geographic accessibility
 Distance (km)
  ≤ 10 km 13 (44.8) 16 (55.2)   1.00   1.00
  11–20 km 33 (36.7) 57 (63.3) 0.43 1.40 (0.60–3.28) 0.87 1.09 (0.39–3.02)
  > 20 km 41 (45.1) 50 (54.9) 0.98 0.99 (0.43–2.29) 0.42 0.55 (0.13–2.29)
 Duration or time spent from residence to TB Center (min)
  ≤ 60 min 35 (37.6) 58 (62.4)   1.00   1.00
  61–120 min 29 (43.9) 37 (56.1) 0.42 0.77 (0.41–1.46) 0.97 0.99 (0.39–2.46)
  > 120 min 23 (45.1) 28 (54.9) 0.38 0.74 (0.37–1.47) 0.65 0.75 (0.22–2.61)
Consciousness on MDR-TB
 Knowledge Level
  High Knowledge 56 (43.8) 72 (56.3)   1.00   1.00
  Low Knowledge 31 (37.8) 51 (62.2) 0.39 1.28 (0.73–2.26) 0.30 1.54 (0.68–3.52)
 Awareness Level
  Good Awareness 61 (46.9) 69 (53.1)   1.00   1.00
  Poor Awareness 26 (32.5) 54 (67.5) 0.04 1.84 (1.03–3.28) 0.01 2.99 (1.29–6.92)
Psychological factor
 Stigma Level
  Low Stigma 51 (42.9) 68 (57.1)   1.00   1.00
  High Stigma 36 (39.6) 55 (60.4) 0.63 1.15 (0.66–1.99) 0.12 0.50 (0.21–1.20)
  1. aEducation - categorized as middle school education level and above (middle school education, high school education, and graduate and above) and below middle school education level (illiterate, read and write, and primary school education)
  2. bOccupation - categorized as permanent salary employed (government staff and private employee), non-permanent salary employed (dependent, self-employee and unskilled laborer)
  3. cFirst visit medical provider – categorized as self-initiative, general practitioner and, hospitals and NGOs (private hospitals, government hospitals and NGOs)