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Table 4 Score distribution for CAS characteristics, interdependencies, and outcomes

From: Interventions to reduce readmissions: can complex adaptive system theory explain the heterogeneity in effectiveness? A systematic review

  n (percent) Examples
CAS Characteristic
Learning 31 (67%) • Nurses used behavior skill training strategies with patients and encouraged their self-monitoring and use of external cognitive supports.
• Nurses provided patients education on such things as vital signs, activities of daily living, coping skills, and signs and symptoms.
Interconnections 44 (96%) • Advanced practice nurses contacted patients after discharge.
• Case managers met with patients after each physician visit.
Self-organization 32 (69%) • Physicians were alerted if patient values went outside normal range; if deemed necessary, physicians could ask patients to adjust medication use.
• Nurses could modify or tailor the frequency of patient follow-up calls based on patient symptoms, knowledge, and needs.
Co-evolution 0 (0%) (none)
Emergence 0 (0%) (none)
Interdependencies
Affordances 45 (98%) • Patients were provided personal telecare units.
• Patients were given discharge forms in one of three languages.
Processes 45 (98%) • An appointment reminder was mailed to patients 10 days prior to each appointment.
• Patient discharge forms were electronically transferred to primary care nurses.
Positive Intervention Effect Reported 18 (39%) (not applicable)