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Table 4 Association between HLQ scores, demographic health and hospital use subgroups (N = 2374)

From: Health literacy profile of recently hospitalised patients in the private hospital setting: a cross sectional survey using the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)

  Healthcare provider support Having sufficient information Actively managing health Social support for health Active appraisal of health information Active engagement with healthcare professionals Navigating the healthcare system Ability to find good health information Understanding health information
  Variable (N) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Sex Female (1604) 3.34 (0.48) 3.12* (0.48) 3.12 (0.48) 3.25 (0.50) 2.92* (0.53) 4.05 (0.60) 3.91 (0.58) 3.90 (0.63) 4.15 (0.58)
Male (1487) 3.35 (0.48) 3.02* (0.47) 3.03 (0.49) 3.26 (0.48) 2.77* (0.52) 4.09 (0.55) 3.90 (0.55) 3.79 (0.61) 4.07 (0.57)
Age <  65 years (1216) 3.33 (0.50) 3.10 (0.48) 3.09 (0.51) 3.24 (0.48) 2.90 (0.52) 4.05 (0.57) 3.89 (0.56) 3.95 (0.57) 4.17 (0.54)
≥ 65 years (1853) 3.36 (0.47) 3.06 (0.48) 3.07 (0.48) 3.27 (0.49) 2.81 (0.53) 4.08 (0.58) 3.93 (0.56) 3.78 (0.64) 4.08 (0.60)
BMI BMI ≤ 25 (1182) 3.34 (0.49) 3.09 (0.48) 3.13 (0.50) 3.28 (0.47) 2.84 (0.53) 4.06 (0.59) 3.89 (0.56) 3.85 (0.62) 4.13 (0.58)
BMI > 25 (1582) 3.36 (0.47) 3.07 (0.47) 3.04 (0.49) 3.25 (0.49) 2.86 (0.53) 4.09 (0.56) 3.92 (0.56) 3.87 (0.61) 4.12 (0.56)
Lives alone Yes (630) 3.35 (0.48) 3.04 (0.49) 3.09 (0.48) 3.13* (0.56) 2.80 (0.54) 4.06 (0.62) 3.90 (0.57) 3.77 (0.68) 4.09 (0.62)
No (2421) 3.32 (0.49) 3.08 (0.48) 3.07 (0.49) 3.29* (0.46) 2.86 (0.53) 4.07 (0.57) 3.91 (0.56) 3.87 (0.60) 4.12 (0.56)
Born in Australia Yes (2308) 3.37 (0.48) 3.09 (0.47) 3.09 (0.49) 3.27 (0.48) 2.85 (0.53) 4.09 (0.57) 3.93 (0.56) 3.86 (0.61) 4.13 (0.55)
No (781) 3.28 (0.49) 3.03 (0.51) 3.04 (0.49) 3.22 (0.50) 2.84 (0.52) 4.02 (0.61) 3.85 (0.58) 3.80 (0.65) 4.07 (0.64)
English spoken at home Yes (2967) 3.35 (0.48) 3.08* (0.48) 3.08 (0.49) 3.26 (0.49) 2.85 (0.53) 4.08* (0.57) 3.92* (0.56) 3.86** (0.62) 4.13** (0.56)
No (98) 3.23 (0.52) 2.95* (0.49) 2.99 (0.47) 3.21 (0.50) 2.85 (0.51) 3.83* (0.70) 3.67* (0.64) 3.58** (0.73) 3.76** (0.86)
Employed Yes (1121) 3.35 (0.49) 3.11 (0.48) 3.10 (0.51) 3.24 (0.48) 2.89 (0.53) 4.08 (0.57) 3.91 (0.56) 3.95* (0.57) 4.18 (0.53)
No (1927) 3.35 (0.47) 3.06 (0.47) 3.06 (0.47) 3.27 (0.49) 2.82 (0.53) 4.07 (0.58) 3.91 (0.57) 3.78* (0.64) 4.07 (0.60)
Left school/TAFEa before completion Yes (1637) 3.31 (0.49) 3.03 (0.49) 3.03 (0.49) 3.24 (0.50) 2.77* (0.53) 4.04 (0.61) 3.89 (0.58) 3.73* (0.66) 4.00* (0.66)
No (1485) 3.36 (0.47) 3.09 (0.47) 3.10 (0.49) 3.27 (0.48) 2.88* (0.53) 4.08 (0.56) 3.92 (0.56) 3.90* (0.59) 4.17* (0.54)
Receives government benefits Yes (1024) 3.36 (0.46) 3.06 (0.47) 3.06 (0.48) 3.26 (0.50) 2.80 (0.53) 4.07 (0.59) 3.92 (0.57) 3.74* (0.65) 4.03* (0.62)
No (2068) 3.34 (0.49) 3.08 (0.48) 3.08 (0.49) 3.26 (0.48) 2.87 (0.53) 4.07 (0.57) 3.91 (0.56) 3.90* (0.60) 4.15* (0.55)
Household income <$30,000 p.a. Yes (1884) 3.37 (0.48) 3.09 (0.47) 3.09 (0.50) 3.27 (0.47) 2.87 (0.53) 4.10* (0.56) 3.93* (0.56) 3.90* (0.60) 4.16* (0.54)
No (412) 3.30 (0.47) 3.02 (0.46) 3.04 (0.48) 3.17 (0.55) 2.78 (0.53) 3.94* (0.64) 3.80* (0.58) 3.63* (0.67) 3.94* (0.66)
Internet use < once a month Yes (583) 3.30 (0.47) 3.03 (0.48) 3.02 (0.48) 3.26 (0.51) 2.71* (0.53) 4.01 (0.63) 3.87 (0.61) 3.61* (0.75) 3.93* (0.68)
No (2486) 3.36 (0.48) 3.08 (0.48) 3.09 (0.49) 3.26 (0.48) 2.88* (0.53) 4.08 (0.56) 3.92 (0.56) 3.90* (0.57) 4.16* (0.54)
Private health insurance Yes (2892) 3.35 (0.48) 3.07 (0.47) 3.08 (0.49) 3.26 (0.48) 2.85* (0.53) 4.07 (0.57) 3.91 (0.56) 3.85 (0.62) 4.12 (0.57)
No (156) 3.33 (0.48) 3.06 (0.54) 3.03 (0.54) 3.22 (0.56) 2.71* (0.62) 4.05 (0.68) 3.96 (0.62) 3.78 (0.72) 4.04 (0.64)
Physical activity ≥3.5 h per week Yes (2192) 3.36 (0.48) 3.09 (0.47) 3.13* (0.48) 3.27 (0.48) 2.87 (0.53) 4.08 (0.57) 3.92 (0.57) 3.87 (0.61) 4.13 (0.56)
No (898) 3.31 (0.48) 3.04 (0.50) 2.94* (0.49) 3.23 (0.50) 2.80 (0.54) 4.04 (0.60) 3.88 (0.56) 3.80 (0.65) 4.07 (0.61)
≥ 4 health conditions Yes (354) 3.40 (0.46) 3.00 (0.51) 3.02 (0.48) 3.21 (0.55) 2.85 (0.51) 3.99 (0.59) 3.84 (0.60) 3.73* (0.68) 3.99* (0.63)
No (2737) 3.34 (0.48) 3.08 (0.47) 3.08 (0.49) 3.26 (0.48) 2.85 (0.53) 4.08 (0.58) 3.92 (0.56) 3.86* (0.61) 4.13* (0.57)
Current smoker Yes (96) 3.25 (0.55) 3.00 (0.52) 2.89* (0.54) 3.12* (0.63) 2.75 (0.52) 3.98 (0.69) 3.82 (0.63) 3.68 (0.73) 4.06 (0.57)
No (2941) 3.35 (0.48) 3.08 (0.47) 3.08* (0.49) 3.26* (0.48) 2.85 (0.53) 4.07 (0.57) 3.91 (0.56) 3.85 (0.62) 4.11 (0.58)
Alcohol consumption Yes (2537) 3.35 (0.48) 3.08 (0.47) 3.07 (0.49) 3.26 (0.48) 2.85 (0.53) 4.07 (0.55) 3.91 (0.55) 3.86 (0.60) 4.12 (0.55)
No (500) 3.35 (0.47) 3.06 (0.50) 3.10 (0.48) 3.26 (0.51) 2.83 (0.54) 4.06 (0.68) 3.91 (0.63) 3.79 (0.72) 4.09 (0.70)
Needed help with questionnaire Yes (239) 3.33 (0.47) 3.00 (0.51) 2.97* (0.53) 3.37* (0.45) 2.64 (0.57) 3.86* (0.68) 3.73 (0.63) 3.40*** (0.77) 3.62*** (0.79)
No (2825) 3.35 (0.48) 3.08 (0.47) 3.08* (0.49) 3.25* (0.49) 2.86 (0.53) 4.09* (0.56) 3.93 (0.56) 3.88*** (0.59) 4.16*** (0.53)
Self-reported ED admission Yes (1632) 3.35 (0.49) 3.05 (0.49) 3.06 (0.50) 3.26 (0.50) 2.81 (0.54) 4.05 (0.59) 3.89 (0.57) 3.80 (0.65) 4.09 (0.61)
No (1429) 3.34 (0.47) 3.10 (0.46) 3.09 (0.48) 3.25 (0.48) 2.89 (0.52) 4.09 (0.56) 3.93 (0.56) 3.90 (0.59) 4.15 (0.54)
Re-presentation to ED within 12 months Yes (596) 3.34 (0.49) 3.05 (0.51) 3.06 (0.51) 3.29 (0.49) 2.83 (0.54) 4.06 (0.62) 3.90 (0.60) 3.76 (0.70) 4.07 (0.62)
No (2495) 3.35 (0.48) 3.08 (0.47) 3.08 (0.48) 3.25 (0.49) 2.86 (0.52) 4.07 (0.57) 3.91 (0.56) 3.87 (0.60) 4.12 (0.56)
Re-admission to hospital Yes (1164) 3.36 (0.49) 3.07 (0.49) 3.08 (0.50) 3.29 (0.50) 2.83 (0.54) 4.08 (0.59) 3.91 (0.57) 3.78 (0.65) 4.08 (0.59)
No (1927) 3.34 (0.48) 3.08 (0.47) 3.07 (0.49) 3.23 (0.48) 2.86 (0.52) 4.06 (0.57) 3.91 (0.56) 3.89 (0.60) 4.13 (0.57)
  1. Bolded results indicate where there were differences in mean HLQ scale scores between individual demographic, socio-economic or hospital use variables according to Pearson chi-square tests, p < 0.05. The interpretation of the size of the differences in means was determined using Cohen’s d for difference in means where a Cohen’s d of > 0.20–0.50 indicated a small effect size*, > 0.50–0.80 indicated a medium effect size** and > 0.80 indicated a large effect size***
  2. aTechnical and Further Education