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Table 3 Trend estimates for post-stroke healthcare service utilization and costs by sub-groups

From: Healthcare utilization and cost trajectories post-stroke: role of caregiver and stroke factors

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p-value
Outpatient (SOC) Servicea IRR IRR (95% CI) IRR (95% CI) IRR (95% CI)  
 Disability (mRS)
  No or slight disability (0–2) Ref 0.87 (0.68, 1.10) 0.58 (0.50, 0.67) 0.54 (0.46, 0.63) < 0.001
  Moderate or severe disability (3–5) Ref 1.09 (0.96, 1.23) 0.86 (0.74, 1.00) 0.87 (0.73, 1.05) 0.035
Outpatient (PC) Costsa Exp(β) Exp(β) (95% CI) Exp(β) (95% CI) Exp(β) (95% CI)  
 Ischemic stroke
  Mild (0–4) Ref 1.15 (0.97, 1.35) 1.02 (0.85, 1.21) 1.10 (0.91, 1.33) 0.577
  Moderately severe (5–14) Ref 1.67 (1.22, 2.30) 1.74 (1.30, 2.33) 1.64 (1.18, 2.29) 0.003
  Severe (15–24) Ref 2.27 (0.56, 9.15) 2.72 (0.69, 10.74) 3.20 (0.73, 13.97) 0.102
 Non-Ischemic stroke
  Mild (0–4) Ref 1.10 (0.64, 1.91) 1.84 (1.01, 3.35) 1.64 (0.85, 3.15) 0.067
  Moderately severe (5–14) Ref 1.61 (0.97, 2.67) 3.15 (1.76, 5.65) 2.44 (1.33, 4.48) 0.001
  Severe (15–24) Ref 2.18 (0.47, 10.14) 4.92 (0.86, 28.18) 4.77 (0.97, 23.41) 0.032
  1. Abbreviations: Ref reference category, IRR incidence rate ratio, CI confidence interval, SOC specialist outpatient clinic, PC primary care, Exp(β) exponentiated beta coefficient corresponds to the ratio of expected cost from Q2 to Q4 to the reference quarter respectively
  2. aEffect estimates based on Model 3: SOC Service included interaction between mRS and quarter (p < 0.001) term; PC Cost included interaction between stroke type and quarter (p = 0.017) and between severity and quarter (p = 0.039) terms