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Table 2 Trend estimates for post-stroke healthcare service utilization and costs

From: Healthcare utilization and cost trajectories post-stroke: role of caregiver and stroke factors

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p-value
Healthcare Service Used   IRR (95% CI) IRR (95% CI) IRR (95% CI)  
 Acute (Inpatient) service
  Model 1 Ref 0.74 (0.54, 1.02) 0.65 (0.48, 0.88) 0.67 (0.47, 0.96) 0.020
  Model 2 Ref 0.75 (0.54, 1.03) 0.66 (0.48, 0.89) 0.67 (0.47, 0.96) 0.020
 Acute (ED) service
  Model 1 Ref 0.90 (0.69, 1.18) 0.75 (0.58, 0.99) 0.82 (0.58, 1.17) 0.181
  Model 2 Ref 0.91 (0.70, 1.19) 0.76 (0.58, 0.99) 0.82 (0.57, 1.17) 0.182
 Outpatient (SOC) service
  Model 1 Ref 1.00 (0.89, 1.13) 0.75 (0.67, 0.84) 0.74 (0.65, 0.85) < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 0.98 (0.87, 1.11) 0.73 (0.65, 0.81) 0.71 (0.63, 0.81) < 0.001
 Outpatient (PC) service
  Model 1 Ref 0.91 (0.79, 1.04) 0.89 (0.76, 1.04) 0.77 (0.67, 0.89) 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 0.93 (0.81, 1.06) 0.93 (0.79, 1.09) 0.78 (0.67, 0.90) 0.002
Healthcare Costs   Exp(β) (95% CI) Exp(β) (95% CI) Exp(β) (95% CI)  
 Acute (Inpatient) costs
  Model 1 Ref 0.65 (0.43, 0.98) 0.66 (0.40, 1.09) 0.50 (0.31, 0.79) 0.006
  Model 2 Ref 0.52 (0.32, 0.83) 0.40 (0.23, 0.68) 0.33 (0.20, 0.54) < 0.001
 Acute (ED) costs
  Model 1 Ref 0.86 (0.62, 1.19) 0.74 (0.53, 1.03) 0.95 (0.62, 1.45) 0.643
  Model 2 Ref 0.81 (0.58, 1.13) 0.69 (0.49, 0.97) 0.94 (0.66, 1.34) 0.538
 Outpatient (PC) costs
  Model 1 Ref 1.28 (1.11, 1.48) 1.23 (1.06, 1.43) 1.30 (1.11, 1.53) 0.004
  Model 2 Ref 1.33 (1.14, 1.54) 1.35 (1.15, 1.59) 1.36 (1.15, 1.62) 0.001
  1. Model 1 has only quarter in the model; Model 2 has the additional covariates in the model (see below for details)
  2. Service utilization model. Acute inpatient service: patient age, gender, ethnicity, caregiver identity, comorbid status; Acute ED service: patient age, gender, ethnicity, caregiver identity, comorbid status, religion; Outpatient SOC service: patient age, gender, ethnicity, stroke disability (measured on modified rankin scale), comorbid status; Outpatient PC service: patient age, gender, ethnicity, stroke type, stroke severity, ward class, comorbid status
  3. Cost model. Acute inpatient cost: age, gender, ethnicity, caregiver identity, comorbid status, marital status, recurrent stroke; Acute ED cost: age, gender, ethnicity, caregiver identity, comorbid status; Outpatient PC cost: age, gender, ethnicity, stroke type, stroke severity, comorbid status
  4. Abbreviations: Ref reference category, IRR incidence rate ratio, CI confidence interval, ED emergency department, SOC specialist outpatient clinic, PC primary care, Exp(β) exponentiated beta coefficient corresponds to the ratio of expected cost from Q2 to Q4 to the reference quarter respectively