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Table 1 Sample Characteristics for ADL Identification and Death/LTI Prediction AnalysesFootnote

Difference due to 198 exclusions of prevalent NH/LTI cases at baseline interview and deaths in the first quarter of follow-up.

From: Validation of the JEN frailty index in the National Long-Term Care Survey community population: identifying functionally impaired older adults from claims data

2004 NLTCS Non-HMO Community Sample at Baseline A: ADL Analysis
n = 12,752
B: LTI Analysis
n = 12,563
count (%) or mean count (%) or mean
Sociodemographics
 Age 77.3 77.1
 Male 5317 (41.7) 5242 (41.7)
 Married 6673 (52.3) 6614 (52.6)
 Race/ethnicity
  White 11,102 (87.1) 10,935 (87.0)
  African-American 832 (6.5) 820 (6.5)
  Hispanic 543 (4.3) 536 (4.3)
 Education
  ≤9th Grade 2230 (17.4) 2177 (17.3)
  10th–12th Grade 5282 (41.4) 5210 (41.5)
  Some college 2793 (21.9) 2763 (22.0)
  ≥College graduate 2093 (16.4) 2075 (16.5)
 Has Identified Family Caregiver 1645 (12.9) 1565 (12.5)
 Enrolled in VHA System 3424 (26.9) 3374 (26.9)
 Used VHA System in Prior Year 894 (7.0) 878 (7.0)
 Medicaid Enrolled 1581 (12.4) 1504 (12.0)
 U.S. Region
  Northeast 2474 (19.4) 2437 (19.4)
  North Central 3405 (26.7) 3357 (26.7)
  South 4667 (36.6) 4599 (36.6)
  West 2193 (17.2) 2170 (17.3)
Selected NLTCS Chronic Conditions
 Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis 6398 (50.2) 6283 (50.0)
 Hyperlipidemia 5081 (39.9) 5038 (40.1)
 Hypertension 7522 (59.0) 7390 (58.8)
 Ischemic Heart Disease 4493 (35.2) 4375 (34.8)
 Diabetes 2431 (19.1) 2375 (18.9)
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 1648 (12.9) 1590 (12.7)
Disability
 Non-Disabled 9990 (78.3) 9929 (79.0)
 IADL Difficulty Only 412 (3.2) 410 (3.3)
 1–2 ADL Dependencies 1074 (8.4) 1044 (8.3)
 3–4 ADL Dependencies 664 (5.2) 644 (5.1)
 5–6 ADL Dependencies 612 (4.8) 536 (4.3)
JEN Frailty Index 2.05 2.02
 Low Frailty (score 0–3) 10,349 (81.2) 10,265 (81.7)
 Moderate Frailty (4–5) 1715 (13.5) 1667 (13.3)
 High Frailty (6–7) 588 (4.6) 541 (4.3)
 Very High Frailty (≥8) 100 (0.8) 90 (0.7)
JFI Domains (prevalence)
 Minor ambulatory limitations 7498 (58.9) 7354 (58.5)
 Severe ambulatory limitations 1196 (9.4) 1155 (9.2)
 Chronic mental illness 1294 (10.2) 1250 (10.0)
 Chronic developmental disability 5 (0.04) 5 (0.04)
 Dementia 534 (4.2) 490 (3.9)
 Sensory limitations 1001 (7.9) 982 (7.9)
 Self-care impairment 2199 (17.2) 2114 (16.8)
 Syncope 2279 (17.9) 2221 (17.7)
 Cancer 1286 (10.1) 1249 (9.4)
 Chronic medical disease 6003 (47.1) 5874 (46.8)
 Pneumonia 497 (3.9) 462 (3.7)
 Renal disorders 338 (2.7) 315 (2.5)
 Other systemic disorders 2004 (15.9) 1921 (15.3)