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Table 1 Coding scheme based on the MARE design framework [19]

From: Understanding how to improve physicians’ paradigms for prescribing antibiotics by using a conceptual design framework: a qualitative study

Research questions and definition of key components Category Sub-category
RQ1: Personal paradigm: “his or her personal style of diagnosis, treatment, prescription and choice of drugs” (Zhu et al., [19], p. 8). P-diagnosis Step 1 Record the patient’s medical history through communicating and inquiring
Step 2 Conduct physical examination, including clinical symptoms and signs
Step 3 Select laboratory tests and interpret results
Step 4 Use diagnostic facilities
Step 5 Verify the suitability of your P-diagnosis
Step 6 Define the patient’s problem
Step 7 Specify the therapeutic objective
P-treatment Step 1 Specify treatment objective
Step 2 Verify the suitability of your P-treatment
Step 3 Start the treatment
Step 4 Provide information, instructions and warnings to the patient
Step 5 Monitor treatment
P-drug Step 1 Specify drug objective
Step 2 Make an inventory of groups of drugs that are effective
Step 3 Choose an effective group according to the relevant criteria
Step 4 Choose a P-drug
P-prescription Step 1 Specify prescribing objective
Step 2 Choose P-treatment
Step 3 Choose P-drug
Step 4 Write the prescription
Step 5 Provide information, instructions and warnings to the patient
Step 6 Monitor the drug treatment effect
RQ2: Expectations of ARAR learning environments: “the conditions and external stimuli that facilitate learning and modify the learners’ paradigms” (Zhu et al., [19], p. 10)
AR learning activities: “the approach by which learners obtain meaning from learning material, context, and other people in the learning environment” (Zhu et al., [19], p. 10)
AR learning assets: “different media forms, such as text, sound and video that are used to provide the learning content” (Zhu et al., [19], p. 10)
AR learning environments Affectively oriented
Perceptually oriented
Symbolically oriented
Behaviorally oriented
AR learning activities  
AR learning assets