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Table 5 Multilevel linear models for expenditure on child health (time lag of 1 year)a

From: Understanding drivers of domestic public expenditure on reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health in Peru at district level: an ecological study

Box Variables Time-adjusted regression coefficient 95% CI p Time and confounder-adjusteda regression coefficient 95% CI p
Box A Time (year) 21.78 17.72–25.83 < 0.001 16.8 11.89–21.71 < 0.001
GDP per capita (constant 2012 US$) 0.00 −0.02 - 0.01 0.499
Gini for income (%) −0.51 −2.62 - 1.61 0.639
Poverty line (%) 0.46 −0.18 - 1.11 0.161
Unmet basic needs (%) 0.14 −0.64 - 0.91 0.728
Urbanization (%) −0.64 − 1.15 - -0.13 0.014 −0.5 −1.01 - 0.02 0.059
Cash Transfer Program coverage (%)) 0.99 0.40–1.57 0.001 0.7 0.04–1.35 0.036
Median years of schooling, women −3.75 −8.22 - 0.73 0.101
  Density of doctor, nurses and midwives (per 10,000 population) 5.74 3.74–7.74 < 0.001 6.35 4.40–8.31 0
Health insurance system, SIS (Attendances/under-5 child) 7.08 0.90–13.26 0.025
Expenditure on under-5 health activities (constant 2012 US$ per u5 child) −0.10 −0.25 - 0.05 0.182 −0.19 −0.33 - -0.05 0.009
Box C DPT vaccine coverage (%) −0.09 −1.15 - 0.96 0.860
Measles vaccine coverage (%) 1.22 0.08–2.37 0.036 0.69 −0.30 - 1.67 0.171
Care seeking for pneumonia (%) −0.50 −1.11 - 0.12 0.113 −0.63 −1.18 - -0.09 0.022
ORT (%) −0.28 −0.98 - 0.42 0.432
Box D Under-5 mortality rate (per 1000 live births) − 0.58 −1.77 - 0.61 0.342
Neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births) −2.27 −4.76 - 0.23 0.075
Stunting (%) 0.47 −0.38 - 1.32 0.277
  1. aUnits of analyses are 192 (24 departments × 8 years). Variables in each group are adjusted for all other variables in the same group or above