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Table 4 Multilevel linear models for expenditure on maternal-neonatal health (time lag of 1 year)a

From: Understanding drivers of domestic public expenditure on reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health in Peru at district level: an ecological study

Box Variables Time-adjusted regression coefficient 95% CI p Time and confounder-adjusted* regression coefficient 95% CI p
Box A Time (year) 33.58 25.35–41.81 < 0.001 17.1 8.48–25.72 < 0.001
GDP per capita (constant 2012 US$) 0.02 −0.02 - 0.05 0.278
Gini for income (%) −8.78 −13.99 - -3.57 0.001 −2.36 −5.81 - 1.10 0.181
Poverty line (%) 0.11 −1.86 - 2.08 0.914
Unmet basic needs (%) −0.51 −2.65 - 1.63 0.642
Urbanization (%) 0.42 −1.35 - 2.18 0.644
Cash Transfer Program coverage (%) −2.52 −4.12 - -0.92 0.002 −0.65 −1.61 - 0.30 0.182
Median years of schooling, women 4.9 −9.18 - 18.98 0.495
Total fertility rate (%) −1.35 −44.88 - 42.19 0.952
Box B Density of doctor, nurses and midwives (per 10,000 population) 9.00 3.19–14.80 0.002 3.47 −0.56 - 7.50 0.091
Health insurance system, SIS (Attendances/under-5 child) −17.98 −35.79 - -0.17 0.048
Expenditure on maternal and neonatal health activities, previous year (constant 2012 US$ per pregnant woman) 0.93 0.80–1.06 < 0.001 0.86 0.72–1.00 < 0.001
Box C Antenatal care visits (%) −4.35 −8.73 - 0.04 0.052
Skill birth attendance (%) −0.43 −2.28 - 1.42 0.649
Box D Neonatal mortality rate (%) −0.59 −6.23 - 5.06 0.838
  1. aUnits of analyses are 192 (24 departments × 8 years). Variables in each group are adjusted for all other variables in the same group or above