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Table 2 Bivariate correlations of expenditure outcomes with covariates from different dimensions (one year time-lag for outcomes)

From: Understanding drivers of domestic public expenditure on reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health in Peru at district level: an ecological study

Box Covariate Per capita expenditure on reproductive health Per capita expenditure on maternal-neonatal health Per capita expenditure on child health
Coefficient p Coefficient p Coefficient p
Box A GDP per capita (constant 2012 US$) 0.081 0.263 0.277 0.000 0.163 0.024
Gini for income (%) −0.390 0.000 − 0.438 0.000 −0.334 0.000
Poverty line (%) −0.277 0.000 −0.321 0.000 − 0.241 0.001
Unmet basic needs (%) −0.116 0.108 −0.273 0.000 −0.169 0.019
Urbanization (%) −0.024 0.737 0.109 0.132 −0.102 0.160
Median years of schooling, women −0.018 0.809 0.117 0.107 −0.056 0.444
Total fertility rate 0.078 0.282 −0.098 0.178 0.048 0.511
Cash Transfer Program coverage (% of rural families beneficiaries of JUNTOS) 0.255 0.000 0.132 0.067 0.426 0.000
Box B Health insurance system (SIS) utilization (attendances/under-five child) 0.066 0.362 −0.018 0.804 0.079 0.275
Density of doctors, nurses and midwives (per 10,000 pop) 0.365 0.000 0.498 0.000 0.545 0.000
Per capita expenditure on reproductive health, previous year (constant 2012 US$/woman of reproductive age) 0.829 0.000 0.533 0.000 0.550 0.000
Per capita expenditure on maternal-neonatal, previous year health (constant 2012 US$/pregnant woman) 0.461 0.000 0.782 0.000 0.546 0.000
Per capita expenditure on child health, previous year (constant 2012 US$/under-5 child) 0.524 0.000 0.490 0.000 0.379 0.000
Box C Family planning needs satisfied (%) 0.042 0.559 0.107 0.140 0.119 0.101
Antenatal care visits (%) 0.204 0.005 0.411 0.263 0.284 0.000
Skill birth attendance (%) 0.202 0.005 0.386 0.299 0.230 0.001
DPT vaccine coverage (%) −0.075 0.300 −0.016 −0.034 − 0.140 0.052
Measles vaccine coverage (%) 0.077 0.291 0.151 0.145 0.097 0.183
Careseeking for pneumonia (%) −0.067 0.355 − 0.005 − 0.104 −0.133 0.066
ORT (%) 0.111 0.126 0.229 0.062 0.056 0.439
Composite coverage index (%) 0.090 0.216 0.286 0.157 0.089 0.220
Box D Stunting (%) −0.088 0.227 −0.250 0.001 −0.054 0.460
Neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births)a − 0.104 0.153 −0.264 0.000 −0.301 0.000
Under-5 mortality rate (per 1000 live births)a − 0.177 0.014 −0.346 0.000 −0.297 0.000
  1. aBased on multiple DHS (birth cohorts). DPT: Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus. ORT: oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding