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Table 2 Study population: having no GP with adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimated from logistic regression stratified by gender (DEGS1)

From: Determinants of having no general practitioner in Germany and the influence of a migration background: results of the German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS1)

  Having no GP
Total (n = 7755) Men (n = 3682) Women (n = 4073)
aOR (95% CI)a aOR (95% CI) a aOR (95% CI)a
Migration background *** ***  
 One-sided 0.86 (0.50–1.47) 0.84 (0.41–1.71) 0.94 (0.45–1.99)
 Two-sided 1.90 (1.42–2.55) 2.33 (1.54–3.55) 1.43 (0.92–2.22)
 No ref. ref. ref.
Gender **   
 Male 1.41 (1.15–1.74)
 Female ref.
Age group (years) ***   ***
 18–29 3.63 (2.09–6.30) 2.63 (1.18–5.88) 5.20 (2.51–10.75)
 30–44 2.59 (1.56–4.30) 2.18 (1.06–4.51) 2.95 (1.56–5.57)
 45–64 1.78 (1.14–2.76) 1.66 (0.85–3.26) 1.80 (1.01–3.18)
 65–79 ref. ref. ref.
Residential area (inhabitants) *** *** ***
 Big city (100,000+) 2.51 (1.83–3.45) 2.33 (1.53–3.57) 2.76 (1.77–4.31)
 Medium-sized town (20,000 - < 100,000) 1.31 (0.94–1.83) 1.12 (0.69–1.82) 1.65 (1.07–2.52)
 Small town (5000 - < 20,000) 1.35 (0.95–1.91) 1.29 (0.83–2.01) 1.41 (0.83–2.42)
 Rural (< 5000) ref. ref. ref.
Marital status
 Single 1.38 (1.01–1.90) 1.63 (1.02–2.61) 1.09 (0.69–1.74)
 Divorced/widowed 1.13 (0.75–1.70) 1.49 (0.83–2.70) 0.86 (0.50–1.48)
 Married ref. ref. ref.
SES *   ***
 Low 0.89 (0.62–1.28) 0.97 (0.59–1.61) 0.78 (0.49–1.27)
 Medium 0.68 (0.51–0.91) 0.90 (0.62–1.29) 0.47 (0.33–0.67)
 High ref. ref. ref.
Excess work (≥50 h/week)
 Yes 1.21 (0.88–1.67) 1.18 (0.81–1.74) 1.50 (0.70–3.22)
 Non-working/65+ years 1.13 (0.86–1.49) 1.03 (0.65–1.62) 1.24 (0.85–1.79)
 No ref. ref. ref.
General state of health
 Average/bad/very bad 0.81 (0.56–1.16) 0.70 (0.43–1.13) 0.96 (0.56–1.63)
 Very good/good ref. ref. ref.
Chronic diseases *** ** **
 Yes 0.44 (0.31–0.63) 0.45 (0.28–0.71) 0.45 (0.26–0.80)
 No ref. ref. ref.
Health insurance *** ***  
 Private 2.23 (1.60–3.12) 2.45 (1.67–3.61) 1.81 (0.96–3.39)
 Others 2.23 (1.51–3.31) 2.62 (1.63–4.22) 1.61 (0.89–2.91)
 Statutory ref. ref. ref.
  1. aAdjusted odds ratios estimated from logistic regression, missing responses were allocated to the reference category (n = 7755). P values: *** p < 0.001 ** p < 0.01 * p < 0.05