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Table 10 Limitations of the interventions

From: Developing and evaluating clinical leadership interventions for frontline healthcare providers: a review of the literature

Author Country Year Limitations of the interventions
Cleary et al. [38] Australia 2005 Sustainability of the intervention is challenging
Ferguson et al. [39] Australia 2007 Difficulty in gaining consent from patient to be observed; skills of observer
Williams et al. [40] Australia 2009 Too intensive thus affecting motivation and ability to attend all sessions
Travaglia et al. [41] Australia 2011 Resistance from colleagues to change, and nurse/ midwives taking clinical leadership roles, time constraints
MacPhail et al. [23] Australia 2015 Time away from clinical duties
Short timeline from progamme implementation and limited evaluation of participants’ leadership knowledge and skills
Leggat et al. [42] Australia 2016 *
Dierckx de Casterelé[45] Belgium 2008 *
Miller and Dalton [25] England 2011 Time away from the clinical setting
Leeson and Millar [26] England 2013 *
Enterkin et al. [27] England 2013 Intervention too long
Phillips and Byrne [31] England 2013 Maintaining momentum generated by the intervention
Castillo and James [32] England 2013 *
Stoll et al. [33] England 2011 *
Miani et al. [34] England 2013 Resistance to change from frontline healthcare providers who did not taking part in the programme. Short period of time to enable change
Runnacle et al. [35] England 2013 *
Lunn et al. [28] Ireland 2008 *
McNamara et al. [29] Ireland 2014 *
Fealy et al. [36] Ireland 2015 *
Patton et al. [37] Ireland 2013 *
Pearson et al. [30] Scotland 2010 Intervention very demanding
Martin et al. [46] Switzerland 2012  
Kling [43] USA 2010 *
Abraham [44] USA 2011 *
Lekan et al. [24] USA 2011 Without control group changes cannot be conclusively attributed to the intervention
  1. *represents missing data