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Table 2 Mapping of the intervention function (means by which an intervention will change behaviour), to behaviour change technique, and to content and mode of delivery of the draft implementation intervention

From: Using behaviour change theory and preliminary testing to develop an implementation intervention to reduce imaging for low back pain

Intervention function (targeted to GP/Patient) Behavioural change technique Implementation intervention: content Policy category Implementation intervention: mode of delivery
Education (GP) Information about health consequences Guidelines for appropriate diagnosis and management of low back pain 1. Communication/marketing
2. Service provision
1. Providing GP with educational material
- Copies of current guidelines provided to GP [4, 38]
2. Training session with GP
- Verbal discussion of guidelines
Information regarding the appropriate diagnosis and management of low back pain 1. Communication/marketing 1. Providing GP with educational material
- Copies of developed clinical resource provided to GPs to read
Prompts/cues Decision tree for appropriate imaging for low back pain (clinical decision support) 1. Environmental/social planning 1. Providing GP with clinical resources
- Copies of developed clinical resource provided to GPs to use during a consult, includes decision tree for clinical decision support
Management plan 1. Environmental/social planning 1. Providing GP with clinical resources
- Copies of developed clinical resource provided to GPs to use during a consult, includes customisable management plan
Training (GP) Feedback on the behaviour Explanation of the goals of using the clinical resource to reduce imaging for low back pain 1. Communication/marketing
2. Service provision
1. Providing GP with training material
- Information sheet about the developed clinical resource provided to GPs to read
2. Training session with GP
- Verbal discussion of goals
Instruction on how to perform a behaviour Instruction on how the developed clinical resource can be used:
- as clinical decision support
- as a checklist or reminder of correct management
- to provide key educational messages to patients
- to provide individualised management advice
- in a time-efficient manner
1. Communication/marketing
2. Service provision
1. Providing GP with training material
- Information sheet about the developed patient education booklet provided to GPs to read
2. Training session with GP
- Verbal discussion of how to use the developed clinical resource
Modelling (GP) Demonstration of a behaviour Modelling of appropriate information to be given to the patient during a consult 1. Environmental/social planning
2. Service provision
1. Providing GP with clinical resources
- Copies of developed clinical resource provided to GPs to use during a consult, includes key messages to be delivered to patient
2. Training session with GP
- Demonstration by training facilitator of how to use the developed clinical resource
Environmental restructuring and Enablement (GP) Adding objects to the environment Developed clinical resource for use during a consult
- Facilitate GP-patient communication
- Provide a tool to help educate and reassure patients during a consult, in a time-efficient manner
- Provide clinical decision support, and a reminder of appropriate imaging use and management advice to give to patient
1. Environmental/social planning 1. Providing GP with clinical resources
- Copies of developed clinical resource provided to GPs to use during a consult
Education (Patient) Information about health outcomes Information to:
- Address common misconceptions around low back pain, with a particular focus on imaging
- Reassure the patient that their low back pain is not serious
- Explain why imaging is not necessary
- Provide suitable management advice
- Provide information regarding symptoms associated with more serious pathology
1. Communication/marketing 1. Providing patient with educational material
- GP delivers the developed clinical resource to the patient during a consult, providing key messages and individualising the management plan
- Patient can use the resource as an ongoing resource of information and individualised management advice
Persuasion (Patient) Credible source Clinical resource delivered by GP and developed by a reputable university research team 1. Environmental/social planning 1. Providing patient with clinical resources
- GP delivers the developed clinical resource to the patient during a consult, providing key messages and personalising the management plan
  Information about health consequences Decision tree for appropriate imaging for low back pain (clinical decision support) 1. Service provision 1. GP-Patient consult
- GP uses the decision tree in the clinical resource during the consult to explain to the patient why they don’t need imaging, facilitates shared decision making
Environmental restructuring and Enablement (Patient) Adding objects to the environment Customisable clinical resource given to patient in consult
- Facilitate GP-patient communication
- Short, appealing and easy to read with limited text and clear information
- Reinforce or remind of information provided within the consult
- Provide appropriate, individualised management advice
- Provide links to other resources with guideline consistent messages
1. Environmental/social planning 1. Providing patient with clinical resources
- GP delivers the developed clinical resource to the patient during a consult, providing key messages and personalising the management plan
- Patient can use the booklet as an ongoing resource of information and individualised management advice