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Table 1 Mean annual costs (in EUR) in 2011, by group, cost type and area of residence

From: Differences in healthcare costs in youths with conduct disorders in rural vs. urban regions: an analysis of German health insurance data

Conduct Disorder Group Control Group
Cost type Urban % of overall costs Rural % of overall costs P-value Effect size (d) Urban % of overall costs Rural % of overall costs P-value Effect size (d)
Inpatient services 1198.90 (±4564.79) 43.1 2166.18 (±5911.83) 60.9 < 0.0005 0.18 180.54 (±1504.75) 23.3 290.33 (±1714.29) 35.5 0.007 0.07
Outpatient services 900.81 (±999.41) 32.3 581.10 (±624.28) 16.3 < 0.0005 0.38 229.51 (±406.60) 29.7 210.82 (±259.31) 25.8 0.030 −0.05
Pharmacotherapy 209.45 (±802.90) 7.5 272.14 (±2189.64) 7.6 0.132 −0.02 179.83 (±5061.23) 23.2 114.73 (±699.86) 14.0 0.471 0.02
Additional therapies 200.08 (±438.02) 7.2 174.97 (±542.15) 4.9 0.042 −0.05 82.76 (±382.29) 10.7 69.10 (±235.91) 8.5 0.089 −0.04
Social paediatric centre 171.37 (±451.56) 6.2 161.10 (±363.51) 4.5 < 0.002 0.07 42.16 (±325.12) 5.4 29.83 (±168.55) 3.7 0.056 −0.05
Transportation costs 66.10 (±314.32) 2.4 119.88 (±488.39) 3.4 < 0.0005 0.13 13.73 (±81.33) 1.8 28.35 (±190.25) 3.5 < 0.0005 0.10
Medical aids and applicances 31.22 (±373.67) 1.1 53.25 (±513.27) 1.5 0.050 0.05 39.89 (±488.72) 5.2 49.68 (±490.56) 6.1 0.427 0.02
Rehabilitation 3.79 (±158.83) 0.1 14.44 (±366.27) 0.4 0.130 0.04 6.61 (±224.36) 0.9 13.71 (±327.58) 1.7 0.312 0.03
Direct payments 4.84 (±44.08) 0.2 10.42v(±72.85) 0.3 < 0.0005 0.09 2.76 (±33.79) 0.4 8.43 (±58.31) 1.0 < 0.0005 0.12
Overall Costs 2784.60 (±5037.73)   3557.41 (±6723.80)   0.253 0.03 773.70 (±5650.52)   816.90 (±2578.49)   0.698 0.01