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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of factors associated with outpatient visits among Indonesian elderly

From: Factors associated with the use of outpatient services among the elderly in Indonesia

Variables Participants using outpatient services Participants not using outpatient services
N % N %
Sex**
 Male 291 20.7 1118 79.3
 Female 371 24.7 1132 75.3
Age
 60~ 64 273 22.2 959 77.8
 65~ 69 170 23.5 552 76.5
70~ 74 128 22.5 440 77.5
 ≥ 75 91 23.3 299 76.7
Marital status
 Married 429 22.7 1459 77.3
 Widowed 216 23.5 704 76.5
 Other 17 16.3 87 83.7
Educational background***
 No formal education 120 21.7 432 78.3
 Elementary school 326 20.4 1270 79.6
 Junior high school or higher 216 28.3 548 71.7
Religion**
 Moslem 555 21.8 1988 78.2
 Others 107 29.0 262 71.0
Economic status ***
 1st [lowest] 127 17.4 602 82.6
 2nd 167 23.0 560 77.0
 3rd 166 22.8 562 77.2
 4th [highest] 202 27.7 526 72.3
With Insurance***
 No 288 18.6 1259 81.4
 Yes 374 27.4 991 72.6
Residency***
 Urban 397 25.1 1185 74.9
 Rural 265 19.9 1065 80.1
Main language***
 Indonesian 129 27.7 336 72.3
 Javanese 220 19.6 900 80.4
 Other 313 23.6 1014 76.4
Region**
 Java 396 22.6 1360 77.4
 Sumatera 122 21.5 445 78.5
 Kalimantan 24 19.4 100 80.6
 Sulawesi 30 22.6 103 77.4
 Bali 51 37.2 86 62.8
 West Nusa Tenggara 39 20.0 156 80.0
Self-rated health***
 Very healthy 51 14.0 313 86.0
 Somewhat healthy 261 17.7 1210 82.3
 Somewhat unhealthy 322 32.3 675 67.7
 Unhealthy 28 35.0 52 65.0
Number of chronic conditions***
 None 268 15.0 1515 85.0
 1 183 28.9 450 71.1
 2 or more 211 42.5 285 57.5
Depression***
 No 461 21.1 1725 78.9
 Yes 201 27.7 525 72.3
Difficulty with activities of daily living ***
 No 537 21.5 1957 78.5
 Yes 125 29.9 293 70.1
Ever fallen down before**
 No 560 21.9 1996 78.1
 Yes 102 28.7 254 71.3
Hospitalized in the past year***
 No 607 22.0 2151 78.0
 Yes 55 35.7 99 64.3
  1. Note: ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001