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Table 6 Results of applying the typology to P4P schemes identified from the review by Eijkenaar et al. [59]

From: A reporting framework for describing and a typology for categorizing and analyzing the designs of health care pay for performance schemes

P4P schemes Who receives the incentive Type of incentive Size of incentive Time lag Performance measured Domain measured Risk
Advancing quality (AQ) UK Groups Bonuses Small Short: 2/3 months lag Relative Mostly within Physicians control (2 final outcomes and 26 processes) High
Clalit
Israel
Groups Bonuses Dependent on budget savings Long: Annually Absolute Mostly within Physicians control (10 processes and 8 intermediate outcomes) Low
Clinical Practice Improvement Pay (CPIP)
Australia, Queensland
Groups Bonuses Large Short: 3 month lag Absolute Within physicians control (12 structures and 7 processes) Low
ERGOV
Germany
Groups Fines Depend on other hospitals Short: 4 month lag Relative Not completely within the physicians control (Final outcome) High
MACCABI
Israel
Groups Bonuses Size not reported Long: Annually Absolute Mostly within Physicians control (12 processes and 5 intermediate outcomes) Low
National Health Insurance P4P (NHI-P4P)
Taiwan
Groups Bonuses Large Short: Monthly Relative 12 structures, 3 final outcomes, and 2 intermediate outcomes High
Primary care P4P (PC-P4P)
Netherlands
Primary Care
Groups Bonuses Large Long: Annually Relative Within physicians control (31 processes) High
Renewal Models (PCRM)
Canada Ontario
Groups Bonuses Small Long: Annually Absolute Within physicians control (12 processes) Low
Physician Integrated Network (PIN)
Canada Manitoba
Groups Bonuses Maximum payment unknown Short: Immediately after performance measure Absolute Within physicians control (only processes) Low
Practice Incentive Program (PIP)
Australia
Groups Bonuses Size not reported relative to income Short: Semi-annually and annually Absolute Within physicians control (only structures and processes) Low
Performance management Program (PMP)
New Zealand
Groups Bonuses Small Long: Semi-annually and annually Absolute Within physicians control (8 processes) Low
Program of quality Improvement (PQI) Argentina Groups Bonuses Large Long: Annually Absolute Mostly within physicians control (16 processes, 7 structures and 3 outcomes) Low
Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) UK Groups Bonuses Large Long: Annually Absolute Mostly within physicians control (85% processes) Low