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Table 3 Odds of migrating to more urban areas for those working in rural and intermediate municipalities

From: Board certification and urban–rural migration of physicians in Japan

  Tertile 1 (rural) in 2012 and Tertile 2 (intermediate) or 3 (urban) in 2014 Tertile 2 (intermediate) in 2012 and Tertile 3 (urban) in 2014
OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Sex
 Male Reference   Reference  
 Female 0.89 (0.75–1.06) 0.18 0.92 (0.86–0.98) 0.01
Years of experience
 0–14 Reference   Reference  
 15–29 0.13 (0.11–0.14) <  0.001 0.18 (0.17–0.20) <  0.001
 30–44 0.06 (0.05–0.07) <  0.001 0.08 (0.07–0.09) <  0.001
  ≥ 45 0.05 (0.04–0.07) <  0.001 0.06 (0.05–0.07) <  0.001
Type of institution
 Clinic Reference   Reference  
 Hospital 1.86 (1.61–2.13) <  0.001 1.41 (1.31–1.53) <  0.001
Board certification status from 2012 to 2014
 Remained certified Reference   Reference  
 Lost certification 1.67 (1.20–2.31) 0.02 1.78 (1.52–2.08) <  0.001
 Newly certified 2.36 (1.87–2.98) <  0.001 1.86 (1.69–2.06) <  0.001
 Remained uncertified 1.14 (0.99–1.31) 0.06 1.25 (1.17–1.33) <  0.001