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Table 1 Characteristics of the study subjects (n = 282,308)

From: Board certification and urban–rural migration of physicians in Japan

  2012 Survey 2014 Survey
Sex, n, %
 Male 228,024 80.8 228,024 80.8
 Female 54,284 19.2 54,284 19.2
Years of experience, n, %
 0–14 97,825 34.7 85,298 30.2
 15–29 104,459 37.0 102,904 36.5
 30–44 60,221 21.3 67,965 24.1
 ≥ 45 19,803 7.0 26,141 9.3
Workplace, n, %
 Tertile 1 (Rural) 11,151 3.9 11,168 4.0
 Tertile 2 (Intermediate) 62,421 22.1 62,064 22.0
 Tertile 3 (Urban) 208,736 73.9 209,076 74.1
Institution type, n, %
 Hospital 178,916 63.4 173,779 61.6
 Clinic or other 103,392 36.6 108,529 38.4
Area of board certification, n, %
 Any general area of board certification 115,898 41.1 123,822 43.9
 General internal medicine 14,142 5.0 15,668 5.5
 Dermatology 4787 1.7 5049 1.8
 Pediatrics 11,656 4.1 12,347 4.4
 Surgery 19,400 6.9 20,171 7.1
 Urology 5349 1.9 5648 2.0
 Neurosurgery 5993 2.1 6341 2.2
 Orthopedics 14,206 5.0 15,048 5.3
 Plastic surgery 1666 0.6 1912 0.7
 Ophthalmology 8720 3.1 8980 3.2
 Otorhinolaryngology 6939 2.5 7212 2.6
 Obstetrics and gynecology 9545 3.4 10,223 3.6
 Rehabilitation 2342 0.8 2359 0.8
 Radiology 4880 1.7 5306 1.9
 Anesthesiology 5766 2.0 6415 2.3
 Pathology 1676 0.6 1826 0.6
 Acute medicine 2834 1.0 3264 1.2
 Psychiatry n.a.   8331 3.0
 Laboratory medicine n.a.   n.a.  
 General practice n.a.   n.a.