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Table 4 Characteristics associated with diabetes-related hospitalizations in patients with type 1 diabetes (Negative binomial regression with cluster robust standard errors n = 184)

From: Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetes patients associated with emergency room visits and hospitalizations in Mexico

  Un-adjusted PR [95% CI], p Adjusted PR [95% CI], p
General characteristics
 Male Ref.   Ref.  
 Female 0.71 [0.32, 1.46], 0.349 0.77 [0.55, 1.45], 0.456
 Age at the beginning of diabetes (years) 1.04 [0.97, 1.11], 0.245 1.05 [1.04, 1.05], 0.000
 Schooling
  Secondary school or less Ref.   Ref.  
  High school or technical or commercial career 0.73 [0.72, 0.74], 0.000 1.64 [0.69, 3.87], 0.264
  University degree or higher 0.53 [0.22, 1.30], 0.168 1.78 [0.45, 7.13], 0.412
 Active smoking
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 1.24 [0.75, 2.03], 0.402 2.74 [2.58, 2.91], 0.000
 Regular light to moderate alcohol consumption
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 0.30 [0.23, 0.42], 0.000 0.31 [0.305, 0.32], 0.000
Clinical characteristics
 Diabetes duration > 10 years 0.30 [0.06, 1.46], 0.136 0.23 [0.07, 1.27], 0.100
 HbA1c ≤ 7% Ref   Ref  
 HbA1c 7.1–9% 0.47 [0.42, 0.52], 0.000 1.22 [0.84, 1.78], 0.289
 HbA1c > 9.0% 0.78 [0.51, 1.19], 0.250 0.46 [0.22, 0.95], 0.036
 Diabetes duration > 10 years## 3.48 [1.01, 12.07], 0.049 1.19 [0.43, 3.31], 0.742
 HbA1c 7.1–9%
 Diabetes duration > 10 years## 1.14 [0.64, 2.02], 0.651 1.64 [1.26, 2.13], 0.000
 HbA1c > 9.0%
 Severe acute diabetic complications
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 3.34 [2.22, 5.02], 0.000 3.57 [2.05, 6.22], 0.000
 Microvascular chronic complications
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 4.01 [3.59, 4.49], 0.000 7.04 [3.72, 13.32], 0.000
 Macrovascular chronic complications
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 1.81 [0.44, 7.38], 0.406 2.32 [1.02, 5.25], 0.044
 Depression
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 2.50 [0.81, 7.72], 0.110 0.85 [0.03, 20.79], 0.922
 Other comorbidities
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 1.68 [1.54, 1.84], 0.000 1.91 [1.09, 3.35], 0.024
 Nutritional status
  Underweight, or normal weight (BMI < 24.9) Ref   Ref  
   Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2) 0.47 [0.16, 1.37], 0.167 0.32 [0.19, 0.52], 0.000
   Obesity (BMI of 30 or higher kg/m2) 0.27 [0.02, 3.47], 0.317 0.14 [0.02, 1.04], 0.055
 Insulin therapy
  Insulin monotherapy Ref.   Ref.  
  Combination of intermediate and fast acting insulins 0.49 [0.21, 1.16], 0.106 0.64 [0.51, 0.81], 0.000
  Combination of fast-acting and long-acting insulins 0.53 [0.24, 1.19], 0.125 0.52 [0.37, 0.72], 0.000
 Number of consultations with endocrinologist 1.09 [0.97, 1.23], 0.150 0.99 [0.79, 1.25], 0.978
  1. PR prevalence ratios, CI confidence interval. The bold values highlight the statistically significant PR