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Table 3 Characteristics associated with the use of the emergency room in patients with type 1 diabetes (Poisson regression with cluster robust standard errors n = 184)

From: Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetes patients associated with emergency room visits and hospitalizations in Mexico

  Un-adjusted PR [95% CI], p Adjusted PR [95% CI], p
General characteristics
 Male Ref.   Ref.  
 Female 1.39 [1.36, 1.41], 0.000 1.52 [1.51, 1.53], 0.000
 Age at the beginning of diabetes (years) 1.01 [0.99, 1.03], 0.302 1.01 [1.01, 1.02], 0.000
 Schooling
  Secondary school or less Ref.   Ref.  
  High school or technical or commercial career 0.95 [0.65, 1.39], 0.781 1.69 [1.41, 2.02], 0.000
  University degree or higher 0.81 [0.65, 1.00], 0.050 2.18 [1.38, 3.44], 0.001
 Active smoking
  No Ref   Ref.  
  Yes 1.20 [0.70, 2.06], 0.504 1.28 [0.72, 2.30], 0.402
 Regular light to moderate alcohol consumption
  No Ref   Ref  
  Yes 0.56 [0.44, 0.72], 0.000 0.68 [0.61, 0.75], 0.000
Clinical characteristics
 Diabetes duration, years 0.99 [0.96, 1.04], 0.869 0.98 [0.96, 1.01], 0.118
 HbA1C (%) 0.98 [0.89, 1.08], 0.717 0.95 [0.86, 1.04], 0.258
 Severe acute diabetic complications
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 4.05 [2.00, 8.20], 0.000 7.54 [4.07, 13.98], 0.000
 Severe acute diabetic complications## HbA1C 0.99 [0.87, 1.13], 0.927 0.93 [0.90, 0.95], 0.000
 Microvascular chronic complications
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 1.89 [1.19, 3.01], 0.007 2.01 [1.99, 2.02], 0.000
 Macrovascular chronic complications
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 1.60 [0.81, 3.16], 0.174 1.18 [1.13, 1.24], 0.000
 Depression
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 2.21 [0.84, 5.83], 0.107 1.72 [1.00, 2.94], 0.049
 Other comorbidities
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 1.43 [1.33, 1.54], 0.000 1.27 [1.26, 1.29], 0.000
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.94 [0.92, 0.96], 0.000 0.95 [0.92, 0.99], 0.013
 Insulin therapy
  Insulin monotherapy Ref.   Ref.  
  Combination of intermediate and fast acting insulin 0.76 [0.74, 0.77], 0.000 0.89 [0.81, 0.97], 0.008
  Combination of fast-acting and long-acting insulin 0.85 [0.50, 1.43], 0.536 1.05 [0.63, 1.75], 0.857
 Number of consultations with endocrinologist 1.13 [1.06, 1.20], 0.000 1.09 [1.06, 1.11], 0.000
  1. PR prevalence ratios, CI confidence interval. The bold values highlight the statistically significant PR