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Table 1 Matrix of intervening factors for corrupt practices in Vietnam’s health sector

From: Corruption practices in drug prescribing in Vietnam – an analysis based on qualitative interviews

  Systemic factors Individual factors
Opportunities for corruption Poor governance None
 Discretion
 Transparency
 Accountability
 Enforcement
Pressures for corruption Pharmaceutical market related factors Pharmaceutical market related factors
 Product related factors  
 Regulation related factors  
 Survival in the market (Sales-based compensation policies) Survival in the market (Pressure to achieve sale targets, fear of being fired if targets are not achieved)
Health care structures and processes  
 The tender system  
 Remuneration systems and financial pressure  
 Workplace pressures
Rationalization for corruption Normalization of corruption Self-interest maximization
 The prevalence of corruption  Professional ethics
 Other social norms  Personal values
 Knowledge and skills
 Advancement opportunity
 Reputation
 Employment
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