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Table 4 Overview of studies included in the meta-analysis of dysphagia attributable LOS reported in cohort studies of patients presenting with stroke

From: Impact of oropharyngeal dysphagia on healthcare cost and length of stay in hospital: a systematic review

Citation Primary clinical diagnosis Reported LOS Dysphagia. Mean +/− SD days Reported LOS No-dysphagia.Mean +/− SD days Mean difference (days) Varience Standard Error (SE) t-statistic and significance level
   n =   n =     
Arnold, M., et al. (2016) Switerland [27] Ischaemic stroke 118 Total hospitalisation: 7.9 +/− 4.8 452 Total hospitalisation: 7.2 +/−  4.4 0.7 SE: 0.464, 95% CI - 1.6107 to 0.2107 t-statistic −1.510, DF 568, Significance level P = 0.1317
Stroke unit LOS: 4.4 +/− 2.8 Stroke unit LOS: 2.7 +/− 2.4 1.7 SE 0.257, 95% CI - 2.2051 to −1.1949 t-statistic −6.610, DF 568, Significance level P < 0.0001
Falsetti, P., et al. (2009) Italy [37] neurorehab (non acute) ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke 62 35 +/− 16.7 89 26.6 +/− 12.3 8.4 SE 2.360, 95% CI -13.0634 to −3.7366 t-statistic −3.559, DF 149, Significance level P = 0.0005
Guyomard, V., et al. (2009) UK [39] Stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) 1506 16.0+/− 9.9 1477 10.5+/− 6.3 5.5 SE 0.304, 95% CI - 6.0970 to −4.9030 t-statistic −18.063, DF 2981, Significance level P < 0.0001
Odderson, I. R., et al. (1995) USA [42] Acute non-haem CVA 48 8.4 +/− 0.9 76 n = 76, 6.4 (+/− 0.6) 2 SE 1.039, 95% CI - 4.0571 to 0.0571 t-statistic −1.925, DF 122, Significance level P = 0.0566
Teasell, R., et al. 2002 Canada [43] medullary CVA pts. with and without dysphagia 527 mean total hospital: 66 +/−17 days 380 total hospital: 44 +/−22 days Difference 22.0 SE 8.712, 95% CI - 40.3024 to −3.6976 t-statistic − 2.525, DF 18, Significance level P = 0.0212
Rehab: 48+/−14 days Rehab 24+/−17 days Rehab: Difference 24.0 SEr 6.924, 95% CI - 38.5474 to −9.4526 t-statistic −3.466, DF 18, Significance level P = 0.002
Westergren, A., et al. (1999). Sweden [33] stroke 60 53.9 +/−35.9 61 25.2 +/−24.6 −28.7 SE 5.533, 95% CI - 39.6481 to −17.7519 t-statistic −5.187, DF 129, Significance level P < 0.0001