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Table 2 Studies included in the descriptive analysis of dysphagia attributable expenditure

From: Impact of oropharyngeal dysphagia on healthcare cost and length of stay in hospital: a systematic review

Authors, date Total sample size (dysphagia) Primary clinical diagnosis Data source (years) Costs inclusive of Mean US$ difference = attributable cost of dysphagia % difference P value Statistical test used
Cohort studies
 Bonilha, et al., 2014 [15] 2883 (317) Ischaemic stroke US Medicare billing records (2004–2005) Cost over and above general care (dysphagia attributable cost) 4510 25.4 < 0.0001 Gamma distributed generalised linear model
 Chen & Ke, 2016 [36] 237 (118) Haemorrhagic stroke National health insurance billing, Taiwan (2002–2012) Total medical cost (insurer and co-payments by individual) 1393.7 23.5 < 0.001 Multivariate linear regression
 Ferraris et al., (2001) [38] 1042 (31) Post-cardiac surgery Hospital surgical data (1998–1999) Hospital related costs per admission 33,323 92.1 < 0.0001 Mann-Whitney test of inference
 Genther & Gourin, 2015 [16] 61,740 (4461) Head and Neck cancer Nation-wide inpatient sample, Health care cost and utilisation project, Agency for Healthcare, Research and Quality (AHRQ) (2001–2010) Total cost per admission 3976 16.4 < 0.001 Generalised linear regression
 Gourin et al., 2015 [17] 2370 (616)a Head and Neck cancer National surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)- Medicare linked database (2004–2007) Total Medicare paid amounts 65,766b 102 Not reported Multivariate linear regression
 Rao et al., 2005 [26] 4551 (908) Stroke Not reported Actual cost of care 5107 28.5 < 0.001 Not reported
 Tian et al., 2013 [44] 8977 (485) Alzheimer’s disease Medicare and Marketscan Commercial databases (2006–2010) Total health care cost (hospitalisation, outpatient, ER, pharmacy) 3620 35.2 Not reported Multivariate linear regression
Cross-sectional
 Chan et al., 2013 [45] 7791 (467) Head and Neck cancer AHRQ (2001–2008) Hospital related costs only per admission 8201 52 < 0.001 Generalised linear regression
 Semenov et al., 2012 [46] 93,663 (5245) Head and Neck cancer AHRQ (2003–2008) Hospital related costs only per admission 2609 12 < 0.001 Generalised linear regression
 Starmer et al., 2014 [47] 1,649,871 (32,922) Anterior cervical disc surgery AHRQ (2001–2010) Hospital related costs only per admission 4692 28.6 < 0.001 Generalised linear regression
 Ward et al., 2012 [48] 17,281 (443) Head and Neck cancer AHRQ (2003–2008) Hospital related costs only per admission 6663 28.3 < 0.001 Generalised linear regression
  1. aData visually extracted from Figure
  2. bRaw data provided by authors