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Table 1 Methodological quality of included studies

From: Impact of oropharyngeal dysphagia on healthcare cost and length of stay in hospital: a systematic review

Cohort studies
Authors, date Design Sampling - Cohort selection Presence of dysphagia Confounders Outcomes Statistics Overall quality rating
  Retrospective or Prospective Recruited from similar population Cohorts similar at baseline Measure used valid and reliable Measured similarly for correct allocation Groups free of dysphagia at start Identified Approp strategies to deal with Measure used valid and reliable Approp stats used  
Altman et al., 2010 [11] Retro + ˜ x + ˜ + + + + Moderate
Arnold et al., 2016 [27] Retro + + + + ˜ + + + + Moderate
Bonilha, et al., 2014 [15] Retro + ˜ x + ˜ + ˜ + + Moderate
Bradley et al., 2011 [28] Retro + + + + + + x + + Low
Chaw et al., 2012 [35] Pro + + + + + + ˜ + ˜ Low
Chen & Ke, 2016 [36] Retro + ˜ + + ˜ + + + + Moderate
Falsetti et al., 2009 [37] Pro + ˜ + + ˜ + x + + Low
Ferraris et al., (2001) [38] Pro + ˜ + + ˜ + ˜ + + Low
Genther & Gourin, 2015 [16] Retro + ˜ x + ˜ + + + + Moderate
Gourin et al., 2015 [17] Retro + ˜ x + ˜ + + + + Moderate
Guyomard et al., 2009 [39] Retro + ˜ + + + + + + + Moderate
Hogue et al., 1995 [29] Retro + + + + ˜ + + + + Moderate
Holmes et al., 2016 [32] Retro + ˜ + + + ˜ x + + Low
Macht et al., 2013 [40] Retro + ˜ + + ˜ ˜ ˜ + + Low
Macht et al., 2011 [41] Retro + ˜ + + ˜ + + + + Moderate
Nilsson et al., 1998 [31] Pro + + x + ˜ x x + + Low
Odderson et al., 1995 [42] Pro + + x + ˜ x x + + Low
Rao et al., 2005 [26] ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ x x + ˜ Very low
Smithard et al., 1996 [12] Pro + + + + ˜ + ˜ + + Moderate
Teasell et al., 2002 [43] Retro + + + + ˜ x x + + Low
Tian et al., 2013 [44] Retro + + x + ˜ + + + + Moderate
Westergren et al., 1999 [33] Pro + + + + ˜ + x + + Low
Young et al., 1990 [30] Retro + + x + ˜ + x + x Low
  1. Key:
  2. + completed and reported in study
  3. X not completed in study
  4. ˜ unclear whether completed as not reported