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Table 4 Summary of Findings

From: Team interventions in acute hospital contexts: a systematic search of the literature using realist synthesis

  Context Mechanism Outcome
  If there is: this enacts: and results in:
PH1 Inter-disciplinary focus and Flattened hierarchy Understanding of roles and Mutual respect, support and value.
Shared decision making and common purpose; self and team efficacy.
Increased job satisfaction, higher performance, higher levels of competence, better teamwork and lower feelings of emotional exhaustion.
Breaking down of inter-professional silos; more integrated patient care; connectivity of the team and camaraderie.
PH2 Effective Communication:
Opportunities for communication; Communication skills;
Communication systems
Shared mental models; Clarity of role; Clarity of purpose. Situational awareness; More integrated care; Better intervention outcomes
PH3 Leadership Support and Alignment of team goals with organisational goals Motivates, empowers and engages staff, creating a sense of team efficacy and a shared sense of responsibility and accountability. Team pride; Camaraderie; Connectedness with broader system; Implementation of Intervention; Sustainability of intervention.
PH4 Credibility of intervention
provided by experienced trainers who team members can relate to and is perceived to be comprehensive (right amount of core topics) with application to the healthcare context in which the team works
A sense of confidence and engages and motivates team members with the intervention. High satisfaction; Increased skills, Increased self and team efficacy, Increased role in safety and translation to practice.
PH5 Team composition and Physician involvement consists of appropriately skilled members including a physician, shares a similar foundational knowledge prior to the intervention and participates in a shared learning experience Shared understanding of the intervention and feel knowledgeable, competent and confident. Credibility of the intervention, translation to practice and sustainability.