Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptions of variables in TREC 2.0 relevant to present study

From: Individual and organizational predictors of allied healthcare providers’ job satisfaction in residential long-term care

Category Variable Definition Measurement Cronbach’s Alpha
Demographic Characteristics Gender An individual’s gender Asked for their gender: male or female N/A
Age group An individual’s age group Asked to indicate age group according to a category (< 20 years, 20–29, 30–39, etc.) N/A
Highest Education Level of education obtained Asked to answer yes or no if completed diploma/certificate, bachelor’s, or graduate degree N/A
Current Enrolment Status Current enrolment in an educational program Asked to answer: yes or no N/A
Years Worked in Current Role Total years in current role Asked for number of years and months worked in current role N/A
Years Worked in Facility Total years worked on unit Asked for number of years and months worked on unit N/A
Hours Worked Average hours worked per week during a two-week period Asked for number of hours in last typical two-week period N/A
Year of Licensure Year the individual became licensed Asked to indicate year of licensure N/A
Primary Role An individual’s primary role Asked to select their primary role: rehabilitation therapist, clinical pharmacist, recreational therapist, social worker, dietician, rehabilitation therapist assistant/attendant/aid, recreational therapist assistant/attendant/aide, other N/A
Individual-Level Factors Burnout-Emotional Exhaustion A debilitating psychological condition brought about by unrelieved work stress Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (short form) [48]. 3 items per subscale scored on a 7-point Likert frequency scale (never to daily). An overall score for each subscale is derived by taking the mean of 3 items .806
Burnout-Cynicism   .655
Burnout-Efficacy   .674
Job satisfaction* An individual’s perception of whether they are “satisfied” with their job Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire, Job Satisfaction Subscale [47]. 3 items scored on a 5-point Likert agreement scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). An overall score is derived by taking the mean of 3 items .821
Work Engagement-Vigor Work engagement refers to positive, fulfilling work-related state of mind, based on three subscales: vigor, dedication, and absorption Utrecht Work Engagement Scale 9 [49]. 3 items per subscale scored on a 7-point frequency rating scale ranging from 0 (never) to 6 (daily). An overall score for each subscale is derived by taking the mean of 3 items .814
Work Engagement-Dedication .881
Work Engagement-Absorption .751
Empowerment-Competence Empowerment is defined as a motivational construct manifested in four cognitions: meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact, which reflects an active as opposed to passive attitude toward work Spreitzer’s Psychological Empowerment scale [23]. 3 items per subscale scored on a 5-point Likert agreement scale, ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). An overall score for each subscale is derived by taking the mean of 3 items .831
Empowerment-Meaning .881
Empowerment-Self-Determination .931
Empowerment-Impact .751
Problem Solving The cognitive, affective and behavioural processes and to the particular set of skills people employ in order to find solutions for the challenges of everyday life Heppner’s Problem Solving Inventory [50]. 10 items scored on a 5-point Likert agreement scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). An overall score is derived by taking the mean of the 10 items .543
Physical Health Status An individual’s perception of their health status over past 4 weeks SF-8™ health survey [51]. 8 items scored on 5- or 6-point scales depending on the item. Scoring is done using a proprietary algorithm obtained when permission to use the scale is granted to produce a summary mental and physical health score (0–100%) .855
Mental Health Status   .839
Context-Level Factors ACT: Leadership Actions of leaders in an organization to influence change and practice; reflect emotionally intelligent leadership The Alberta Context Tool [52]. 6 items scored on a 5-point Likert agreement scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). An overall score is derived by taking the mean of the 6 items .932
ACT: Culture The way that “we do things” in our organizations and work units, items reflect a supportive work culture 6 items scored on a 5-point Likert agreement scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). An overall score is derived by taking the mean of the 6 items .831
ACT: Evaluation The process of using data to assess team performance and to achieve outcomes in organizations or units 6 items scored on a 5-point Likert agreement scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). An overall score is derived by taking the mean of the 6 items .919
ACT: Social Capital The stock of active connections among people. Connections are of 3 types: bonding, bridging, linking 6 items scored on a 5-point Likert agreement scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). An overall score is derived by taking the mean of the 6 items .816
ACT: Organizational Slack-Staff The cushion of actual or potential resources which allows an organization (unit) to adapt successfully to internal pressures for adjustments or to external pressures for changes 3 items scored on a 5-point Likert agreement scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). An overall score is derived by taking the mean of the 3 items .591
ACT: Organizational Slack-Time 4 items scored on a 5-point Likert agreement scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). An overall score is derived by taking the mean of the 4 items .742
ACT: Organizational Slack-Space 2 items scored on a 5-point Likert agreement scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). An overall is derived by taking the mean of the 2 items .722
ACT: Formal Interactions Formal exchanges that occur between individuals working within an organization (unit) through scheduled activities that can promote the transfer of knowledge 4 items scored on a 5-point Likert frequency scale (never to almost always). Recode each of the 4 item scores to “0” (no interaction) and “1” (interaction). An overall score is derived by taking a count of the 4 recoded items .832
ACT: Informal Interactions Informal exchanges that occur between individuals working within an organization (unit) that can promote the transfer of knowledge 9 items scored on a 5-point Likert frequency scale (never to almost always)/ Recode each of the 9 item scores to “0” (no interaction) and “1” (interaction). An overall score is derived by taking a count of the 9 recoded items .803
ACT: Structural and Electronic Resources The structural and electronic elements of an organization (unit) that facilitate the ability to assess and use knowledge 7 items scored on a 5-point Likert frequency scale (never to almost always). Recode each of the 7 item scores to 0 (no resource) or 1 (resource). An overall score is derived by taking a count of the 7 recoded items .644
Adequate Orientation An individual’s perception of whether they have had enough orientation to carry out their job effectively and safely. A single item scored on a 5-point Likert agreement scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) N/A
Dementia-related Responsive Behaviours An individual’s experience with violence and difficult behaviours from residents. Sum of six items: threat of assault, emotional abuse, physical abuse, verbal sexual harassments, sexual assault, and force sexual intercourse. Each item was scored as yes or no based on if the respondent had experienced the behaviour during the last five shifts N/A
Provincial/Facility Variables Province Province in which the residential LTC is located British Columbia, Alberta, or Manitoba N/A
Owner-Operator Model Ownership and operation model of the facility Public not-for-profit, private for-profit, or voluntary not-for-profit N/A
Facility Size Total number of beds for residents in the facility Sum of LTC beds and non-LTC beds (small: ≤79 beds, medium: 80–120 beds, large: > 120 beds) N/A
  1. Cronbach’s alpha (α): α ≥ 0.9, excellent; 0.9 > α ≥ 0.8, good; 0.8 > α ≥ 0.7, acceptable; 0.7 > α ≥ 0.6, questionable; 0.6 > α ≥ 0.5, poor; 0.5 < α, unacceptable
  2. Abbreviations: ACT Alberta Context Tool, LTC long-term care, N/A not applicable as single item