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Table 3 The results of the logistic regression analysis for discrimination from different sources (presenting odds ratios [ORs] and their 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs])

From: Foreign-born physicians’ perceptions of discrimination and stress in Finland: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

  Discrimination from managementa Discrimination from colleaguesa Discrimination from patientsa
  OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Gender    0.064    0.323    0.198
 Men 1    1    1   
 Women 1.99 0.96–4.10   1.33 0.76–2.34   0.72 0.44–1.19  
Age 0.96 0.67–1.38 0.836 0.90 0.67–1.21 0.505 0.79 0.61–1.03 0.077
Employment sector    0.352    0.433    0.675
 Municipal (primary care) 1    1    1   
 State (hospitals) 0.89 0.30–2.65   1.62 0.68–3.90   0.71 0.32–1.57  
 Private 0.45 0.15–1.33   1.41 0.65–3.06   1.06 0.54–2.11  
Country of birth    0.025    0.003    < 0.001
 Estonia 1    1    1   
 Russiab 1.85 0.77-4.46   2.32 1.13–4.73   3.53 1.94–6.43  
 Other EU/EEA country 3.00 1.20–7.46   3.57 1.66–7.69   3.12 1.56–6.26  
 Other country 4.59 1.58–13.34   3.68 1.55–8.74   4.58 2.05–10.23  
Years from getting a practicing licence 1.59 1.16–2.17 0.004 1.11 0.84–1.47 0.467 1.32 1.01–1.73 0.044
Language problems    0.698    0.153    0.462
 No 1         
 Yes 1.07 0.76–1.50   1.21 0.93–1.58   1.10 0.86–1.40  
Cross-cultural training    0.031    0.086    0.941
 No 1    1    1   
 Yes 2.61 1.09–6.24   1.88 0.92–3.86   1.02 0.53–1.96  
Cross-cultural empathy 0.71 0.52–0.97 0.032 1.02 0.78–1.33 0.889 1.04 0.82–1.30 0.764
Team climate 0.44 0.31–0.61 < 0.001 0.57 0.43–0.76 < 0.001 0.69 0.53–0.91 0.008
Skill discretion 0.67 0.48–0.91 0.012 0.63 0.47–0.85 0.002 0.88 0.67–1.17 0.378
R2 0.31    0.24    0.16   
  1. Continuous variables were used as continuous standardized variables and the model ORs presented indicate the likelihood of passing from no discrimination to discrimination, compared to one standard deviation change in continuous independent variables
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. aDiscrimination variables were dichotomized (as 0 = hardly ever and 1 = others) for these analyses
  4. bRussian Federation / the former Soviet Union