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Table 1 The characteristics of the study sample

From: Foreign-born physicians’ perceptions of discrimination and stress in Finland: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

  n %
Gender
 Women 240 65.2
 Men 128 34.8
Sector
 Municipal (primary care) 280 76.5
 State (hospitals) 34 9.3
 Private 52 14.2
Country of birth
 Estonia 142 38.3
 Russian Federation / the former Soviet Union 111 29.8
 Other EU/EEA country 64 17.3
 Other country 54 14.6
Discrimination from superiors
 Hardly ever 302 82.5
 Not often 26 7.1
 Sometimes 24 6.6
 Fairly often 11 3.0
 Very often or continuously 3 0.8
Discrimination from colleagues
 Hardly ever 263 72.1
 Not often 58 15.9
 Sometimes 30 8.2
 Fairly often 10 2.7
 Very often or continuously 4 1.1
Discrimination from patients
 Hardly ever 161 44.1
 Not often 104 28.5
 Sometimes 79 21.7
 Fairly often 18 4.9
 Very often or continuously 3 0.8
Cross-cultural training
 No 310 84.2
 Yes, as part of my studies to become a physician 21 5.7
 Yes, after graduating as a physician 31 8.5
 Yes, as part of development work or a project 6 1.6
  Mean SD
Age 39.1 9.13
Years from getting a practicing license in Finland 5.2 3.11
Patient-related stressa 2.41 0.81
Integration-related stressa 1.67 0.73
Language problemsa 2.03 1.20
Cross-cultural empathya 3.75 0.88
Team climatea 4.16 0.83
Skill discretiona 4.60 0.53
  1. aThe scale ranged between 1 and 5