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Table 4 Description of variables used in empirical models and summary statistics

From: Estimating technical efficiency of Turkish hospitals: implications for hospital reform initiatives

Variable Description Mean SD Min Max
Variables in Frontier Model
output Hospital composite output (see Eq. 9) 14.3 M 29.0 M 2885 287 M
bed Number of inpatient hospital beds 144 215 2 1816
doctors Number of doctors except residents 55 83 1 1030
clinicians Number of non-doctor health professionals (nurses, midwives, technicians, etc.) 174 231 7 2006
devices Number of X-Ray, MR, CT, ECG, Doppler 12 17 0 458
devices_d Dummy to control for zero-value problem     
admin Number of administrative staff 39 53 1 489
icubeds Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Beds 17 25 0 230
icubeds_d Dummy to control for zero-value problem     
Variables in Inefficiency term model
type Hospital ownership type (%)     
 MoH General 42.02    
 MoH Integrated County Hospitals 11.97    
 MoH Teaching 3.99    
 Private General 36.83    
 Private University 1.21    
 Public University 3.99    
income Per capita income proxied by Regional per capita Gross Domestic Product
 Less than $5000 4.36    
 $ 5001–10,000 12.64    
 $ 10,001–15,000 28.94    
 $ 15,001–20,000 39.33    
 $ 20,001 and above 13.73    
region Statistical regions and percent of hospitals in each region
 Istanbul 15.31    
 West Marmara 5.94    
 Aegean 12.8    
 East Marmara 8.91    
 West Anatolia 8.91    
 Mediterranean 11.41    
 Central Anatolia 5.94    
 West Black Sea 7.88    
 East Black Sea 4.92    
 North East Anatolia 3.53    
 Central East Anatolia 6.22    
 South East Anatolia 8.26