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Table 4 Results for PACIC by demographic and clinical characteristics (Study sample; n = 2681)

From: Patients’ assessment of chronic illness care: a validation study among patients with type 2 diabetes in Finland

Characteristic PACIC Mean (SD) P-value Spearman’s rho P-value
Gender
 Men 2.36 (0.84) 0.001 − 0.07 0.000
 Women 2.26 (0.84)    
Age
 27–54 2.49 (0.89) 0.000a −0.12 0.000
 55–64 2.40 (0.87)    
 65–75 2.21 (0.84)    
Professional education
 Upper secondary education or less 2.31 (0.84) 0.90 0.01 0.806
 Higher education 2.32 (0.84)    
Marital status
 Single 2.42 (0.87) 0.000 −0.10 0.000
 Married/cohabiting 2.34 (0.84)    
 Widowed/divorced 2.16 (0.80)    
Duration of diabetes
 ≤ 3 years 2.41 (0.85) 0.028 − 0.05 0.011
 4–10 years 2.32 (0.85)    
 >  10 years 2.27 (0.83)    
Medication
 Oral drugs only 2.29 (0.83) 0.001 0.06 0.002
 Oral drugs + insulin/insulin only/other 2.41 (0.86)    
Service provider responsible for care
 Municipal healthcare 2.25 (0.82) 0.000b 0.14 0.000
 Occupational or private healthcare 2.54 (0.89)    
  1. aKruskal-Wallis test bMann-Whitney U test
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